TiSSA Conference Abstracts
The significance of mental images: A theoretical approach on social boundaries in the context of (social-)pedagogic practice
Sarah Sobeczko Plenum

The current discourses in the field of scientific social pedagogy (and neighbouring subdisciplines of educational sciences) concerning mental images are flourishing; mental images and image-based assumptions that social workers (re-)produce regarding their clients are widely discussed as efficacious influencing factors on pedagogic practice. According to pedagogical anthropologists, (social-)pedagogical images of clients contain descriptive and, above all, normative ideas about how developments should proceed or what constitutes or should constitute a humane purpose (Bilstein 2003; Stenger 2003; Wulf 2014 & 2017). A mental image is the result of differentiated inclusion and exclusion processes and serves as a simplified model of a social figure which combines a wide range of symbolic boundaries such as class, gender, race, body, disability, etc. The power structures in society, desires, norms and values are mirrored in these inner representations of clients. Reproducing deeply anchored social boundaries inevitably goes hand in hand with symbolic violence (Bourdieu 1998) and exclusionary interpellations (Althusser 1977; Butler 1998). In mental images, boundaries and processes of othering between different clients (them vs. them) as well as distinctions between client and social workers (them vs. us) can be illustrated. Social work is demanded to reflect on its special role in the mediation of society and subject and to look self-critically at the reproduction of mental images and assumptions regarding its clients. In this context, the theoretical approach to the mental figure of images builds an indispensable basis, especially since many educationalists argue with the term, but in their theoretical substructure, they usually remain rather vague: the concept of mental images is used in various contexts in worthwhile and productive ways – However, broad theoretical or rather philosophical underpinning is often neglected. This paper is based on an ongoing PhD project at the Philipps-University Marburg, Germany, which (among other things) aims to work on this desideratum. The phenomenological reflections by Edmund Husserl prove to be extremely fruitful in order to approach a concept of the image that focusses on the interweaving in power structures without negating the subject’s potential of irritating or infiltrating existing mental images. In particular, Husserl's proposals for the systematic and categorical identification of images in general (he attests objective material pictures and mental images a close community of essence) offers promising possibilities to differentiate between constituent elements of images (Husserl 1904/2006). By means of his analyses, mental images can be understood as implicit knowledge bases which can be reconstructed both with regard to the subject of the picture (in our case: of a client) but also with regard to the image representation (by social workers). Doing difference (West & Zimmerman 1995) and symbolic violence in the context of symbolic boundaries are given special consideration and are linked to a phenomenologically informed image theory. Finally, the added value of a reflection on mental images that social workers (re-)produce regarding their clients is being discussed with focus on implications for a critical and simultaneously successful social work with diverse clients (Kessl & Maurer 2014; Maurer 2018).

FAMILIES ASSESSMENT AND DECISON MAKING AS A(n) (IR) RATIONAL PROCESS
Marta Mascarenhas Phd

The present research aims to study decisional models, underlying criteria and determining (objective and subjective) factors of professional judgement in risk situations, as well as the procedural logic behind professionals’ decision making in the Portuguese Child and Youth Protection System, particularly Social Workers. Emphasis will be given to criteria and arguments associated with the decision of child reunification, i.e., the process through which a child protection professional determines conditions have been gathered for a child previously subjected to a severe danger situation (that caused her institutionalization) to be reunited with her family. In face of the invoked arguments, we will argue that families are not assessed based on purely rational criteria to determine their change potential and subsequent investment (or not) in child reunification and shall aim to uncover this decision process’s main features and determinants. The main research goals to be achieved are: to compile and analyze the main arguments mobilized by professionals in different stages of child protection process (arguments typology); to explore risk conception and risk assessment models underneath such arguments in order to reach the intervention referential in this area; to assess the existence (or not) of different levels of technical autonomy according to the context in which child protection takes place (administrative or judicial); to understand the influence in the decision making process of factors that determine the “nondeliberative judgement” (Webb, 2012), considering less studied aspects such as intuition, emotion, professional instinct, as well as the use of tacit knowledge and practice wisdom arising from professional experience. Exploratory interviews will take place with strategic elements of the National Child Protection System (Judges Trainer, Social Work Managers). Based on content analysis of these interviews, specific situations of child endangerment were presented in vignette format to child protection agents (judges, social workers and other professionals from Child Protection Services as well as professionals from Children Shelters). These participants were asked a set of questions about: i) who and what elements should be involved in decision making, ii) variables they consider more influent in this decision making process iii) the importance they attribute to a set of characteristics specific to abuse situations. Argument analysis based on child protection case files will focus on the identification of such features and professionals’ predictive abilities. Features such as professional experience, personal path, familiarity between cases are some of the variables under study.

An exploratory study of how stakeholders involved in social care service provision in Scotland experience regulation as delivered by the Care Inspectorate.
Gillian Pritchard Phd

This research is in fulfilment of the Doctorate of Professional Practice and is studied by distance learning with Robert Gordon University in Aberdeen. The researcher is a strategic inspector with the Care Inspectorate, the national regulator for social care services in Scotland. The research is undertaken independently of this role and with the full support of the Care Inspectorate. The research is an exploratory study of how stakeholders involved in social care service provision in Scotland experience regulation as delivered by the Care Inspectorate. The research will address the following objectives: 1. To describe the performance of all care service types regulated by the Care Inspectorate in Scotland over an identified time period. 2. To identify knowledge, understanding and perceptions of regulation among those receiving care services and among those providing care services, and other stakeholders. 3. To identify stakeholders’ perceptions about the process, delivery and framework of care service regulation in Scotland. Regulation of social care services is evolving. From traditional compliance-based approaches, regulators claim to be more responsive to the dynamic social, political and financial climates in which social work and social care are now delivered, yet the role of the regulator retains fundamental absolutes in relation to assurance and protection. Ensuring that regulation of the sector both meets the needs of society, with its dynamic political environment, and meets the needs of those who use services and other stakeholders, is a challenging position. The regulator would argue that distinctions between ‘them’ (the regulator) and ‘us’ (those being regulated), although they may still exist, are now based more on relationship-based practice, improvement and outcomes for people. This research offers a further exploration of these perceptions from all stakeholders and aligns with the conference theme, providing a unique contribution to the knowledge base: much of the literature involving stakeholders is about the regulation of specific services and not about the wider process of regulation. The study is undertaken from a paradigm of epistemology, using a constructivist approach. The research uses a mixed methods design. The quantitative and qualitative phases are connected using a co-productive approach which, itself, is undertaken by means of a Delphi study. At the time of submission of this abstract, the researcher has begun a literature review, completed quantitative data analysis, completed analysis of the co-productive approach and is preparing to undertake the qualitative phase. Although at an early stage, there are already themes emerging from quantitative data, a review of the literature and the Delphi study about what individuals view as the core purposes of regulation and the factors which give people confidence in the process of regulation to achieve these purposes. Views are also beginning to emerge about the perceived benefits and disadvantages of different identified models of regulation and the efficacy of each, as perceived by stakeholders. Critiques of regulation are also beginning to be explored from the perspectives of individual stakeholders and wider regulatory systems. The qualitative phase will allow more detailed exploration of these themes.

Social work on the move: Challenging and crossing borders and boundaries
Mieke Schrooten Plenum

Interest in transnational and border-crossing issues has expanded considerably within several academical disciplines over the last few decades. In the educational, theoretical and practical field of social work, this ‘transnational turn’ is also noticeable. This is not surprising, as present-day social work is highly influenced by transnational processes and global trends. Many of the current concerns of the profession of social work – such as social inequality, ecology or human mobility – go beyond the particularity of nation-states and have an explicit transnational dimension. Moreover, a growing number of people lead ‘transnational lives’, i.e. lives that transcend national boundaries. These developments create fundamental challenges for social work as they affect the everyday life worlds of community members, service users and professionals, as well as social work organisations and political frameworks. Even though transnationality has become a key topic for social work, social work is just at its beginnings in systematically reflecting and analysing the significance of border-crossing developments. Highly significant in this matter is the ‘methodological nationalism’ at work in the field, meaning that the nation-state remains firmly embedded in social work concepts, policies and practices as an unquestioned frame of reference. In this paper, I argue that nation-state borders are not the only borders at stake in social work. Besides these physical borders, a variety of more symbolic boundaries – geographic, racial, linguistic, cultural, juridical, institutional and familial, among others – are also of importance for clients as well as social professionals, institutions and the society in general. This metaphorical and conceptual approach of boundaries as sites of real and intense ‘crossings’ links them to a much broader intellectual agenda. It is in this regard that I argue that border-crossing social work requires a move away from a strict focus on conventional social work practices to include several border-crossing social work practices, within existing social work settings, but also within informal initiatives and approaches. Informal settings are of specific relevance when discussing border-crossing social work practices, as literature reveals a growing importance of many civil society and grass roots organisations in addressing various social needs. Although these organisations often thrive under the conceptual and empirical radar of conventional social work research, policy and practice, they reach people that often are not reached by the latter as they are more willing to accept people who are for many different possible reasons excluded from formal assistance or are suspicious towards official services. What’s more, many of these networks have an explicit focus on challenging and crossing physical borders as well as socio-spatially constructed boundaries.

An exploration of the experiences of young people in residential care settings in Ireland and Germany.
Joseph Haugh Plenum

The research was designed in order to identify differences and similarities in the experiences of young people in residential care setting in Ireland and Germany. Two sets of semi structured interviews were carried out in Ireland and Germany (n=6:6). The KJHV (Jugend- und Soziale Hilfen) in Germany and EPIC (Empowering People in Care) in Ireland were used to source research participants. The participants were aged between 18 – 23 and have lived in a youth residential care setting for a minimum of 3 months prior to their eighteenth birthday. Research has highlighted that comparative analysis of data can improve outcomes for service users (Asthana and Halliday, 2006). International comparison of policy and practice can challenge assumptions and bring contrasting perspectives to similar social problems and solutions (Francis, et al. 2004; Peters 2008). Data collection was commenced in February 2018 and completed by March 2018. Results: The results will inform policy and practice in youth residential care settings and stimulate public debate surrounding youth residential care settings. Preliminary findings from the research highlight the importance of supportive, nurturing relationships and environments for young people in residential care settings. The majority of young people identified a clear preference for a ‘High Nurture – Low Control’ model of care. Implications: Research can help to inform policy makers and youth residential care providers. Listening to the voice of the child has been internationally accepted as good practice. The findings and recommendations can be used to modify policies in order to obtain better outcomes for young people in residential care settings.

Community sport, social cohesion and structural work
Shana Sabbe Plenum

The International Federation of Social Workers determines the establishment of social cohesion as one of the core mandates of social work. However, in post-welfare times, where social cohesion is conditioned by values such as individual responsibility and personal obligation, this objective has become constrained. Social cohesion seems to be particularly liable to become detached from questions of justice and equality when it becomes enacted through functionalised and narrowed down forms of social control. Therefore, social cohesion lies at the heart of the secular discussion whether social work should redirect individuals or rather transform unjust structures. A practice wherein this individual-structural discussion becomes particularly tangible is that of community sport. Community sport deploys social work approaches such as community development strategies (in the form of low-threshold sport activities) in order to establish social cohesion and to tackle social inequality with socially vulnerable young people. Whereas research has drawn attention to the transformative or structural potential of this practice, it is still unknown how structural objectives are translated into the daily practice of community sport. On the basis of a case study in Flanders (the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium), we identify and illustrate two major structural work strategies: ‘outside-in’ and ‘inside-out’. Two major findings come to the forefront. First, the findings display the dominant use of outside-in approaches (such as signalling to extern actors) and the need for developing collectively constructed inside-out strategies (such as collective reflection upon power imbalances within the community sport organisation). Second, our research displays a power imbalance within participant-practitioner relationships (through the exclusion of participants) as well as practitioner-organisation relationships (through the system of social employment). As such, the complexity of structural work in the context of community sport became very tangible, for example through the ways in which power imbalances on these different levels exacerbated each other. Based on these findings we argue for the development of a holistic structural approach wherein outside-in and inside-out strategies are combined and wherein the effects of strategies are considered for the different actors involved. Lastly, our research raises the question which kind of social work professional is best suited to realise structural objectives as well as how we can create the necessary conditions for practitioners to do so.

Perspectives from professionals on the child in child protection
Judith Haase Phd

Research question The study deals with the question, in which manner children in child protection are socially constructed by professionals over the last three decades. The obtained data originates from an ambulant institution which builds a bridge between medical child protection and child welfare services. The agency consists of different practitioners like physicians, socials workers or psychologists. I aim to outline certain construction logics and patterns used by those professionals. Methods and procedures Within the methodological framework of the grounded theory approach, I mixed quantitative and qualitative, non-reactive, methods for a retrospective data access. I followed 4811 case records from 1985 to 2014. Firstly, I reconstructed two cases in order to check quality and validity of the records and to develop the research question and the further steps. Secondly, I used descriptive statistics of all records in order to provide summaries about different features. Finally, qualitative analyses of 29 single cases were conducted in different steps of coding and refinement. Results The descriptive-statistical analysis illustrates trends and patterns over the three decades and show that child protection underlies conjunctures. The results depict professional discourses over time as well as public development, social policy matters and publicly discussed incidents in Germany. That leads to the conclusion, that the child in need is a social construction, which is made in dependence of these connotations. The child appears as an object of contemporary perceptions, valuations and ideas. The findings of the qualitative analyses indicate, that the key task of the professionals is to get the child to speak. To achieve the information they need, the diagnosticians apply different strategies to encourage and enable the child to declare troubles, neglect or abuse. Those methods vary from respecting the child’s well-being on the one hand to pressure and corner it on the other hand. During the process, the practitioners characterize the child’s skills and willingness to provide the required and claimed information between being compliant on the one hand or non-compliant on the other. Discussion The statistical analyses lead to the conclusion, that the child appears as an object of contemporary perceptions, valuations and ideas. The qualitative analyses show, that the child is attributed as a witness or an investigation item, which has to get cracked. The child’s needs and wishes are subordinated to the goal of data inquiry. The applied strategies and attributions clarify, that the construction and reconstruction of generational differences as well as power imbalances of professional relationships appear to be constitutive elements of the process. Questions for supervisory panel • Are the results comprehensible and the conclusions justified? • How can the findings contribute to further development of a subject-oriented child protection?

Social Work and Motherhood – how child protection social workers label single mothers.
Andrea Fleckinger Phd

Social Work and Motherhood – how child protection social workers label single mothers. The research project throws a light on the challenges single mothers face when they are in contact with child protection social workers. It is based on the results from a qualitative research project carried out in 2017 in Northern Italy, which focused on the dynamics of secondary victimisation of mothers how survived gender-based violence by child protection social workers (Fleckinger, 2017). From the findings two central risk factors emerged which showed that the risk of secondary victimisation increases when the woman did not meet the ideal of a “good victim” and of a “good mother”. The present research project tries to deepen the understanding why and how motherhood might put a woman at risk. As international research shows, mothers are often seen as more responsible than fathers, which also increases the risk of being blamed (Tazi-Preve, 2017; Leichentritt, 2011; Strega et.al, 2008). Thus, the data contrasts the concept of equal parenting discussed in theory and promoted by the legislation in many western industrialised countries. To gain a deep understanding of these discrepancies the research project follows a double structure, oriented on the importance of a constant dialog between theory and practice in social work research (Staub-Bernasconi, 2007). Following a feminist-ethnographic approach, the empirical part collects through problem-centred guided interviews the experiences single mothers made with child protection social workers. The aim is to give a voice to the often-unheard service users and to get an inside of how child protection social work interventions are perceived by mothers (Spivak, 2014; Trömel-Plötz, 1992; Haraway, 1988). The data are complemented with participant observations made in a discussion group of single mothers and in a discussion group of child protection social workers. The triangulation of the data is a way to understand how motherhood and mothering are interpreted by social work. These results open subsequently the theoretical part, which consists in a discussion on a meta-level on the direction social work has taken. By embracing theories and approaches beyond the mainstream, i.e. the critical theory of patriarchy (Werlhof v. (ed.), 2011), the modern matriarchal studies (Göttner-Abendroth (ed.), 2009) as well as the concept of the matricentric feminism (O’Reilly, 2016), the results could be contextualised and interpreted in a forward-looking way, which may contribute to develop responses for the complex challenges social work faces. Questions for supervisory panel: 1. On the one hand, social work is a profession, which started as a response to a great social distress by challenging also the capitalist vision. On the other hand, through the processes of professionalisation, implementation and institutionalisation of social work, the profession bags for recognition of the system, which has created the need of social work. Is it therefore unavoidable that social work became more conform and a useful henchman to maintain the system or is social work still equipped to challenge the neoliberal-capitalist mechanisms of exclusion? 2. Does social work has a (forgotten) inherent feminist alignment?

The importance of educational qualification for social work practice: From the perspective of social work managers
Jana Havlíková Plenum

Educational qualification and subsequent lifelong learning are usually considered as one of the key conditions for professionalization of social work. Since 2007, there is a tertiary education in Social Work or other related branches required as the necessary qualification for social work in the Czech Republic. Before this period, social workers were considered as clerks and upper secondary education was sufficient for them, or as philanthropists for which was important the “hart” not the education. This view shared not only by public but also by professionals has been losing its power overtime; however not completely as there are still debates wheatear tertiary education is for social work profession vital or not. Our aim was to investigate the view on importance of education for social work performance shared by managers of social workers, i.e. by the people who choose suitable candidates for the positions of " municipal social worker", who check the work of these workers as well as (co-) shape their working conditions, and therefore significantly affect the performance of social work in practice. Based on results of a representative survey among managers of social workers employed within social services and the direct superiors of social workers employed by municipalities, first we compare the view of these types of managers on the importance of educational qualification for social work in their organizations, and then discuss implications of the findings presented for tertiary education in social work and for the contemporary form of legislation ruling the qualification required for social work in the Czech Republic. The findings suggest that managers of social services perceive qualification of social workers as more important than managers of municipal social workers; however, only 1/3 of them, regardless the organization/facility they are employed at, see educational qualification really essential for quality of social work performance. Finally, the results point out to the different quality level of professional preparation across the tertiary educational facilities perceived by the managers.

Digital media in Swiss social work practice: About the usage and the attitudes of professional social workers towards digital media – digital professionalism
Caroline Pulver Phd

Digital media is changing professional practice. A large part of everyday life of service users and social workers alike is happening on- as much as offline. Social Workers have to use and work with new channels of communication and define their practice in line with the changed necessities of today’s society. But technological and social change are happening fast, and new inequalities show via digital media. So, it becomes increasingly difficult to understand, the kind of influence these changes have on professional practice. Because of the lack of overall concepts and guidelines, social workers are left alone to deal with these challenges. But where in the adaption of digital media do we stand in social work practice in Switzerland? What implications does the situation in Switzerland hold for a concept of professionalism, that includes digital media and requirements of today’s hybrid everyday life? To answer the questions survey data were generated (summer 2018). The survey data will be deepened by means of qualitative research methods (focus groups, summer 2019). The sample included social workers from all fields of social work in Switzerland. A total of 277 people from German- and French-speaking Switzerland answered questions on the use of digital media and their attitudes towards it. After evaluating the usage behaviour of the surveyed social workers, three different types of users can be identified: 1 The conservative type This type uses a maximum of two different media, one of which is e-mail (100%) and the other is in most cases (93.2%) a media-like work program, which partly has Internet and Intra-net supported functions. The conservative type corresponds to 21.7% of the professionals within the sample. Of these, 71.2% are women and 28.8% men. 2 The new standard This usage type works with three or four digital media. The classics e-mail and media-like work programs are used by practically all persons of this type. Other media frequently used by this group are messenger programs, forums, Skype and social media. Very rarely do professionals in this group use professional networks. The new standard type corresponds to 55.6% of the sample. Of these, 73.4% are women and 26.6% men. 3 The progressive type 22.7% of respondents are progressive users. They use five or more different media for their work. In this group, e-mail, media-like work programs and messenger programs are used by virtually everyone. The use of forums, social media and Skype for this type is around three-quarters. 6 out of 10 people of the progressive type also use professional networks. It is noticeable that in this group the relative proportion of men is significantly higher than in the other two groups. Based on the status of the Thesis the questions for the supervisory panel concern 1) the regression model built based on the survey data, 2) the methodological triangulation and 3) the integration of the different data in a model for ‘digital professionalism’.

Recognizing young masculinities vulnerability in the context of welfare practice
Harry Lunabba Plenum

In an ongoing research project, Masculine vulnerability in the making, I examine boys and young men’s experiences of welfare and youth work and analyze how young masculinities’ vulnerability is recognized in professional welfare work. There is still relatively modestly research on masculinity in the field of social work. While welfare statistics show that masculinities are often highly represented in marginalized groups, we still lack theory on masculinities vulnerability. Feminist scholars and social work researchers often view masculinities as a hegemonic social category in society. This perception is often accurate considering the existing gender inequalities within the labor market, how political power is divided between gender groups or how men and boy’s often dominate in everyday life settings. However, scholars, particularly in the field of education research, have started to question the perception of masculine privilege when considering the context of education – as many boys are failing in school. The “boy crisis” in education is shown by Pisa results and in young men’s lack of educational opportunities, particularly regarding higher education. Even though there are evident patriarchal structures in society, gender hierarchies are not uniform in all social contexts. In my presentation, I discuss results from the analysis on contemporary discourses of masculine vulnerability and present how boys and young men’s vulnerability is manifested in welfare practice. The study draws upon ethnographic research conducted in two youth work settings: a rap-music workshop targeting ethnic minorities and in a welfare organisation offering targeted gender sensitive support for young people. The ethnographic data consist of participatory observations, interviews with workshop participants and service users (N = 25) as well as interviews with professionals working in the two settings (N = 7). The discussion utilizes from three theoretical perspectives: a) masculine vulnerability in terms of a structural inequality, b) masculine vulnerability in terms of masculinity performances and c) masculine vulnerability in terms of isolated relationships. Each perspective derives from different discursive traditions in social sciences and feminist research. Structural inequality perspective highlights the intersectionality of masculinities; how the social category of men and boys also includes vulnerable individuals and groups such as individuals of ethnic and sexual minorities as well as boys and men from low-income groups. A performance perspective addresses how there are different ways of “doing” boyhood and manhood and how some performances are in conflict with normative expectations. The relationship perspective highlights how vulnerability is manifested as a lack of social bonds to significant others but it also highlights how perceptions on vulnerability is linked to emotions. The aim is to show how intersectional analysis as well as analysis on performances and relationships can highlight diversity and nuances within the category of masculinities. I argue that boys and young men’s vulnerability is too often overlooked in the debate on masculinity and gender inequality.

City Mice versus Regional Mice: Challenging the Boundaries and Bridges in Training Future Professionals with a Focus on Social Work.
Kate Jonathan Plenum

Australia has a vast expanse of land, although not necessarily the people to fill it. It is an “island” continent, the sixth largest by total landmass and the flattest globally whilst also being the smallest continent. Its climate is diverse; from subtropical to arid desert mainly in the centre, where there is little or no vegetation. For instance, it is often said in Queensland that “it is beautiful one day and perfect the next”. Whereas, Melbourne Australia is famous for its unpredictable weather, that it is often said ‘to have four seasons in one day!’ Australia is divided into states, and characteristic of each are, urban, suburban (henceforth referred to as, “city/cities”); and region, rural and remote (or “outback”) - henceforth collectively, termed “regional”. Naturally, the cities, like any other are adequately resourced in terms of Materials (resources), Infrastructures, Community services (e.g., education/training, social capital), and Experts (professionals or practitioners) serving the populace: this is the MICE concept. The regional, however, have a significant lack of MICE (similar services or resources of the cities). Inadvertently, it is in these areas of inadequate resources that social problems are more concentrated, intense and relatively devastating. The “close-knitness” of residents or communities in the regional areas meant, that people are easily affected by the plight of the one another. Usually, mental health challenges, drug and alcohol, low educational, economic status (to mention a few) are common, so also is a high suicide rate. A considerable part of this dividing force of an adequate city MICE versus lacking regional MICE is the training of future practitioners as a means to develop regional areas. For example, it is not uncommon in regional communities that the ratio of the available practitioner(s) to service users is high and unhealthy. A long waiting list, the high cost of goods and services, homelessness, unemployment and an insufficient number of professionals are intense in these areas. Moreover, refugees, asylum seekers and other migrants could easily find their way to, or be directed to, such areas. Thus, on the one hand, the practitioner’s capacity to meet growing needs is unrealistic and could be detrimental to the quality of care given. On the other hand, access to professionals becomes increasingly problematic and long-winded. It appears that a long-term developmental approach of these communities should be considered, instead of a short-term “bandage style” temporary funding that is too short-lived to exert any significant impact, one such long-term perspective is the development of its citizens. This paper aims to discuss and explore the need to remove the boundaries and bridges in training future professionals with a focus on Social Work. The exploration advocates an introduction of long-term traineeships to train suitable residents to a degree and professional levels. This would be a collaborative venture of higher education institutions of the region and community agencies. It would require the support and commitment of the three levels of government to the region, as well as the regulatory body (e.g., AASW), to ensure its implementation and success.

Can gender quotas break community disengagement from local decision-making? A critical case test
Marsela Dauti Plenum

The implementation of electoral gender quotas in more than 100 countries (Dahlerup, 2018) has led to significant numbers of women in politics, challenging traditional models of political representation. Gender quotas are expected to affect how citizens perceive their role in society and engage with their representatives. Theoretically, women politicians serve as role models, signaling to underrepresented groups that policymaking is more inclusive (Mansbridge, 1999; Phillips, 1995; Zetterberg, 2009). Despite the spread of gender quotas, little is known about the ways that they affect community engagement in local decision-making. Most studies focus on whether quotas affect political attitudes (e.g., political trust and knowledge) and behavior (e.g., participation in political campaigns and protests) rather than the engagement of community members in decisions that have a direct effect on their well-being, for instance the distribution of social welfare benefits or the implementation of local development projects. We test whether gender quotas affect the engagement of community members in the local councils of Albania. Albania (re)introduced gender quotas at the local level in 2015, a decision leading to a three-fold increase of women in local councils. Numerous studies conducted before the introduction of gender quotas reveal low levels of community participation in council meetings (Institute for Democracy and Mediation, 2014; Partners Albania, 2013). To examine the impact of gender quotas, we tracked the participation of community members in 11 councils across the country during August – December 2016 and 2018. We collected information on the characteristics of community members who participated in meetings (including gender, profession, and place of work) and recorded their interactions with local representatives. We differentiated between attending meetings and taking the floor to make requests. Thematic analysis was conducted to examine the type of requests that community members addressed during council meetings. The number and characteristics of community members who participated in meetings were compared over time. Findings revealed only a slight increase in the number of community members who attended meetings. Among those who participated in meetings, there was an increase in the number of requests made for social welfare benefits. The study shows that in the short-run gender quotas do not break community disengagement from local decision-making but they affect the type of requests that community members address to their representatives. We discuss implications for social workers engaged in community practice, strengthening the relationship between community members and local representatives.

Policy alienation in the front line social work
Maija Mänttäri-van der Kuip Plenum

The work performed in the public sector has been undergoing a fiercely debated transformation in Finland. Despite representing the Nordic Welfare model, the policy and ideology governing the social and health care services has been transforming and the Finnish public sector has witnessed a shift towards a market and managerial ideology combined with an atmosphere of permanent austerity. Particularly social and health care services have been changing in terms of how services are arranged and produced. Overall, these changes affect organizations and the context of the frontline work. Social workers execute social policies in their daily work. Yet they might feel unease about implementing and executing certain policies. Thus, for individual workers these changes can be a source of policy alienation. They might feel that they lose their participation, which might be detrimental for organization’s performance and the wellbeing of the workers. In this study, we explore the usefulness of policy alienation framework (Tummers 2012) in analyzing the changing context of work and the experiences of the social workers in the frontline. Using interview data of 17 social workers, collected in 2017 in various parts of Finland and analyzed with problem driven content analysis, we test empirically policy alienation framework in the context of restructuring of social and health services. The initial findings suggest that the framework captures social workers’ experiences in executing policies and identifies their coping strategies. The policy alienation is widespread among the workers and the experiences of strategic powerlessness in particular, seem common.

Participation in the care planning process of the addressees in pedagogical family help
Jana Demski Phd

In Germany, there is a welfare state benefit triangle in Social pedagogical Family Help (SPFH) between the addressees, the Youth Welfare Office as the public agency and the non-statutory agency as service providers. The families have applied for SPFH at the Youth Welfare Office or are forced to do so. The Youth Welfare Office instructs a specialist from the non-statutory agency to visit the family in their home, which is a strong encroachment on their autonomy. The professionals of the non-statutory agency carry out the support and assistance, which can have different focuses. The parents can be strengthened in counselling interviews. However, SPFH can also be used to avoid the removal or to check the wellbeing of the child. Social work holds the standardization function, which means that it guards and reproduces normal states and processes in the sense of control (cf. Böllert 2012, p. 626). The professionals are to control deviant behaviour and support the addressees so that social norms can be observed. At the same time, asymmetries in practical action cannot be completely eliminated. The voice of the addressees should be made strong against the dominant power of normality (cf. Thiersch 2013, p. 18). Bitzan and Bolay (2013, p. 38) call for a sharper theoretical profile of addressee orientation in disciplinary discourse. The present project deals with the perspective of the addressees and how the can be integrated into the care planning. Schrapper (2018, p.1030) calls for a transparent, participatory and respectful approach to young people and their parents in the planning of aid. How the addressees of the SPFH can participate in the care plan should be the subject of this PhD project. The addressees of the SPFH are to be interviewed. The interviews will be analyzed in terms of content analysis according Gläser/Laudel.

Challanges and Perspectives of the Geman Welfare State System - Introduction in the National Day
Karin Böllert Plenum

The lecture gives an impression of the perspectives and reform efforts of the German welfare state system in the face of the central challenges of demographic change, changes in the labour market and the duplication of normative models.

Residency and (Non-)Citizenship: Social Work within and against the Nation State
Lisa Janotta Plenum

The role of Social Work in society can be discussed between the poles of “institution” and “profession”. As an institution, Social Work is part of the welfare state and the nation state. As a profession, Social Work defines it’s own values and objectives. Following this definition, Social Work for Non-Citizens and persons in precarious residency situations has to deal with the borders and boundaries of the nation state. On the one hand, the client’s residency status restricts their scope, and so it restricts the scope of the social worker: The access to welfare goods and the right to abode is bound to the residency status of Non-Citizens. On the other hand, professionals may try to enact the universal values like the Human Rights, e.g. But Social Work for Non-Citizens will always take place in relation to the decisions of Immigration Officers. So – how do Social Workers perceive the (Non-Citizen) clients, their scopes and their profession? What kind of border and boundary work do they perform? And being part of the nation state (“Social work as an institution”) – (how) does Social work take part in defining and deciding who has the chance to stay and who has to leave the country? My empirical PhD-study focuses the frame of the nation state as a frame that enables and restricts professional Social work practice. Based on a materialist theory of action, I presume that the nation state is not barely “there”, but it is enacted by countless state actors – border officers, immigration officers, welfare officers and social workers, too. They all define, what “the state” in situ is, whom may be granted access to the territory and who may participate at the goods of the welfare state. By interacting with Non-Citizens, they define “the border” in every single professional act. While state officers act as performers of “the law”, social workers are bound to the possibilities and restrictions by the law AND follow professional values that may transcend to frame of the nation state. For my study I conducted interviews with border officers, immigration officers and social workers in Germany. In my presentation at the TiSSA-Conference, I want give an insight into my findings form the data analysis: How do the actors define the “state borders”, the “borders of entrance” and their “border work”? What does this tell us about the (German) “nation state”, the construction of “immigration and immigrants” and the production of “the (German) border”? The presentation will highlight the perspective of the social workers and will relate it to the perspective of the state officers. While the call for the TiSSA-conference invites to discuss boundaries as “class, gender, race and nationality” and the “distinctions between ‘us’ and ‘them’”, my presentation connects to the problem of “nationality” and deepens the topic by giving an insight into implicit knowledge of professionals who have to work with and against the boundaries of citizenship and nationality.

Strategies to prevent harmful alcohol consumption
Gheorghița NISTOR Plenum

Strategies to prevent harmful alcohol consumption PhD Gheorghita NISTOR Abstract At international level, there is a continuing concern to combat harmful alcohol consumption, its effects on health, and to monitor the phenomenon and implement social consumption control policies, especially on adolescents and young people. In Romania, it is envisaged the implementation of such strategies to reduce alcohol abuse at the level of social policies in the field of health, education. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to capture the views of specialists on social policies that should be developed in this direction. Methodology: The sociological survey based on a questionnaire applied to 101 professionals working in the field of social assistance (200 questionnaires were submitted, 137 were returned, 36 incomplete). Disscution and Conclusions: The results of sociological research have shown that specialists do not know the initiatives of the various institutions involved in combating this phenomenon and propose a series of legislative changes at the social and health level. Keywords: addictions, alcohol, medical and social support services, social policies

Deciding on priorities in youth care. Policy analysis and underlying strategies.
Koen Gevaert Phd

K. Gevaert, PhD-student Ghent University, Belgium Supervisor: Prof. dr. Rudi Roose, Ghent University, Belgium Co-supervisor: Dr. Sabrina Keinemans, Zuyd University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands Abstract for the Pre-PhD conference, Tissa 2019 Problem statement and research questions Social workers often find themselves in a role of policymaker because they have to negotiate and make decisions concerning resource allocation on a micro-level, in the context of scarce resources. The scarcity creates a need for decision-making on prioritization. Social workers have to decide who should have priority to whom in receiving care, and why. Many social workers meet this problem every day. Yet it is a far from evident matter. Decision-making on prioritization is a controversial issue. It is an important challenge and a burning question if we consider social work to be a practice that strives for social justice. In this PhD-project, we focus on this issue in the domain of youth care. The three main research questions are: ¥ How does social policy deal with the unsolvable problem of prioritization decisions in youth care? ¥ What are the characteristics of the decision-making process that actually takes place when professionals decide on prioritization of referrals in youth care? ¥ In what way can this decision-making process be understood as a practice of moral judgement? Stage of the PhD and methodology First, a systematic literature review was undertaken. We explored existing research and its presuppositions, with specific attention to the place that is given (or not) to the dilemmatic character of these decisions. The results of this review were published last year (Gevaert, K., Keinemans, S., & Roose, R. (2018). Deciding on priorities in youth care: A systematic literature review. Children and Youth Services Review, 95, 191–199). Then the first research question was addressed by a classical content analysis of the case of Integrated Youth Care, a policy process in Flanders (the Dutch speaking part of Belgium). The aim is to submit a second article based on these findings. Findings In the presentation at the Tissa Conference, we would like to discuss the findings of the policy analysis. As compared to the literature review, we found a larger acknowledgement of discretion in the policy analysis. The concept of ‘moral residue’ turned out to be a very useful concept to understand the issues that are at stake in the policy process. Three underlying policy strategies could be distinguished: a strategy of spreading the mandate to decide over different authorities, a strategy of numbers (installing a quota, weighing and comparing several criteria) and a strategy of focusing on the particularity of cases. Exploration of next step in research After having completed the policy analysis, we want to move to the second research question, namely how does this decision-making process actually take place in practice? Therefore, we will end our presentation with some questions probing at the lived experience of the professionals who have to decide about priorities.

Negotiations on identities and belonging in social work with LGBTQ refugees
Inka Söderström Phd

In my PhD studies, I examine the negotiations on identities and belonging in the context of Finnish social work with sexual and gender minority refugees and asylum seekers. My research questions are, what kind of narratives social workers and asylum authorities construct for LGBTQ refugees, and how do queer refugees themselves negotiate on their identities and belonging in dialogue with the authority and professional narratives. With “LGBTQ” I refer to the whole diversity of non-normative sexual orientation and gender identity, and with the term “refugee” I mean everybody who has applied for an asylum in Finland, regardless of their current residence status. Gender and sexual diversity are relatively hidden topics in social work research and practice in Finland, especially when it comes to immigrant social work. By means of my research, I hope to present more tools for social workers to encounter LGBTQ migrants and the diversity of sexuality and gender in general. My doctoral study is positioned within narrative, critical, and feminist social work research. My topic is interdisciplinary, creating dialogue between social work research, queer studies, and migration research. Theoretically and epistemologically, my study is based on social constructionism, queer theory, and decoloniality. I use narrative focus group and individual interviews as my research methods, and my methodology rests on ethnographic and participatory approaches as well. My material consists of three data sets: focus group interviews with LGBTQ refugees, individual interviews with social workers working with asylum seekers and refugees, and written asylum decisions made by the Finnish Immigration Service. I do not use participant observation for ethical reasons, but I do work as a volunteer in the peer-supportive network for queer refugees to make myself familiar and gain trust before the group interviews. Belonging is often explained as a feeling of being “at home”. What has arisen in my past conversations with queer refugees, are their negotiations between feelings of (un)belonging in their national communities and in the Finnish LGBTIQ communities. The asylum decisions are a very concrete and extreme example on inclusion and exclusion, the border of a nation state indicating the border of belonging. On a more abstract level, normativity sets boundaries for belonging. Heteronormativity and cis-normativity force people to affirm belonging to categories where they do not feel like belonging. Social work as a societal profession is not separate from the prevailing norms and hegemonies. Working with queer migrants requires particularly intersectional awareness of one’s own assumptions, since LGBTQ refugees often drop outside even the normative story of a homosexual or transgender person. I have been working with my doctoral project for a year now, and my data collection and analysis are in the very beginning. What I have been reflecting on is the position of my research in the social work research community. I would be very happy to hear about some tips, experiences, and co-operation possibilities around research that is combining social work with sexual and gender minority studies and queer studies, and decolonial studies as well.

From Lion to Termite? The Penetration of Neoliberal Rationality in Social Work Education and Practice
Raf Debaene Plenum

Usually neoliberalism is understood as an economic doctrine threatening social work from the outside, based on a pure free-market logic. Against this neoliberal doctrine, social work would then affirm a discourse and practice of human rights and solidarity to fight to get the neoliberal lion back in the cage. Yet, these neoliberal evolutions take place within a shifting discourse manifesting a new normative rationality (‘economism’), no longer restricted to the social-economic field, but penetrating all domains of life and making the boundary between social work and neoliberalism unsure. More than a simple 'external threat', neoliberalism is a rationality that infiltrates and determines our opinions, feelings and behaviour in a subtle way. In this symposium we first try to explain what is new in this neoliberal rationality and how it informs people’s subjectification, way of life, thinking and feeling about society and politics. Then we investigate how it influences practices of social work and is also at work in social work education. Neoliberal Subjectification. Raf Debaene Classical liberalism was in the first place a political theory striving for the freedom and political and civil rights of the individual. According to its rather naïve idea of economy as a quasi-natural process, it recommended a free market economy, with limited intervention of the state. In Undoing the Demos. Neoliberalism’s Stealth Revolution, Wendy Brown argues, drawing on Foucault’s analysis in Naissance de la biopolitique, that neoliberalism is our new form of rationality. It still promotes free market economy, but now understands it as the necessary and sufficient basis for freedom. But at the same time, it grasped that there is no naturally given form of economy, nor a natural homo economicus. Instead the homo economicus has to be artificially created and the state has to take responsibility therefor. People have to be educated to become economically thinking, feeling and behaving subjects. Politics of education, social policy, labour legislation don’t aim at the creation of a free and responsible subject nor at social justice, but must be used as instruments to learn people to compete, to be entrepreneurial and to invest their own emotional, intellectual and cultural capital. As a result all moral and political significant values still exist but are interpreted anew and get an economical meaning. The plea for small government interference only means a withdrawal of the state from the market, but hides its impact on and involvement with our subjectivity. Neoliberal Rationality, Social Work Practice and Social Work Education. Bart Van Bouchaute, lecturer political science Artevelde University College Ghent Inspired by the work of Wendy Brown on neoliberal rationality - based on Foucault’s Collège de France lectures of 1978-1979 on neoliberal governmentality - our research explores whether, in which specific discourse and with which specific tactics this neoliberal rationality has found solid ground in both social work organisations and social work education in Flanders. In a University College for social work, we analysed educational material, programs and methods, and we conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 social work lecturers. We also conducted and analysed 24 in-depth interviews with field workers (9) and their managers (3) from 3 varying fields of social work practise. The research reveals that social work education and practice are not completely immune to this neoliberal rationality. The results show the insidious impact of neoliberal rationality on the self-image, the practice and the positioning of social work organisations (and their workers) and social work education (and their lecturers) and call for more and systematic in-depth research on the ‘termite-like’ threat of neoliberal rationality to the core mission of social work. From Perpetuation to Suspension of Symbolic Boundaries. Hans Grymonprez, Researcher ISOS - AP University of Applied Sciences; Researcher Department of Social Work and Social Pedagogy - Ghent University Inspired by the concept of boundaries as core-theme of our annual meeting, in this presentation we focus on how social workers - in a context of neo-liberal inspired public policy - might challenge the boundaries between homeless people and a range of public resources. Theoretically differentiating between social and symbolic boundaries (Lamont & Molnar, 2002), we particularly draw attention to those processes in which symbolic boundaries are produced and reproduced in the context of outreach work practices towards marginalized homeless. We show how the penetration of neo-liberal inspired models and how access (to a range of public goods) is managed, perpetuates a range of symbolic boundaries or even installs new boundaries (e.g. the homeless individual with complex needs). On the other hand, we argue – illustrated with results from empirical research - that social workers also develop critical reflexivity and develop practices in which symbolic boundaries between homeless and a range of services are temporarily suspended. Whilst this not ended homelessness, at least it provoked more sensitivity towards the sovereignty of homeless individuals and more debate about the meaning of services and how they define and address social problems.

Professionality in child and family counselling services. A qualitative analysis of the professional habitus of counsellors and their relevance within social pedagogical addressing processes
Maik Sawatzki Phd

Child and family counselling services have been part of the psychosocial help-system for parents, children and young people in Germany since the 1920s. Over the years, this institution has undergone extensive changes: in law and in concept. Within the broadness of counselling offers, the child and familiy counselling services are important and frequently claimed aid institutions within the children’s service system in Germany. The primary aim of Child and family counselling services is to offer low-threshold, solution-oriented support for families, parents, children and young people. Nevertheless, Child and family counselling services continues to be discussed critically with reference to its conception: Some see in it an individual-centered help - similar to psychotherapy - while others locate it at the intersection of individual and society, socio-spatially and life-world-oriented, with a focus on daily issues of the addressees. These discussions are also represented in the actual work of counselling centers: Depending on the preferred concept, they operate very differently. If one takes a look at the statistics, it becomes clear that disadvantaged or more difficult-to-access addressee groups are still underrepresented. Without a normative interpretation of this, it says something about the concept and working practice. Is this related to their conceptual specifics? There is a institutional-orientated structure (service users have to go to the counselling center), a dominant orientation on service users from middle class layers, an excessive therapeutic view and trends of depoliticization of professionals. This PhD project therefore raises the question of the extent to which addressing processes (i.e. the creation of a help process in the interaction of institution, profession and addressees) in Child and family counselling services are structured and constructed by the professionals (the counsellors) and their professional habitus. Among other things, the question is to be examined which professional self-understanding and attitude the professionals present - especially with a view to the addressees - and to what extent, for example, linguistically symbolized inclusion and exclusion practices show themselves? For the reconstructive recording of linguistic meaning, qualitative interviews with professionals in Child and family counselling services will be conducted. Specifically, problem-oriented interviews will be used. Since experts of different professions work in Child and family counselling services, only social pedagogical experts should be considered for the sampling, since they can be seen as particularly relevant with regard to the questions raised, but also to the proportional distribution of experts in Child and family counselling services. Experts will be selected from both therapeutic and social-spatial counselling centres. This leads to a comparative perspective that is relevant with regard to the question at hand and which may also provide information on the connection between institutional concepts and individual, professional habitus. The interviews will be evaluated by content analysis according to Gläser/Laudel.

Phd Abstract Jessica Eckhardt: Reconstruction of critical social work in Nicaragua and its relevance for the (critical-reflexive) self-conception of social work in Germany
Jessica Eckhardt Phd

"To ask about the perspectives which are fundamental for the comprehension of social work, as well as its specific effects (...), is seen as an important challenge, especially in the current time when globalization (...) is considered to work like a neo-colonizing impulse. Following this perspective, we find ourselves in a newly-prepared colonization, epistemologically manifested in the predominance of European and Anglo-American thinking, their academic domains, their language, and their systems of "valid" knowledge´s distribution. "(Muñoz Arce 2015, p. 422) Debates and experiences of social work in Latin America are in general strongly influenced by the perspectives about Social Work coming from the Global North (cf. Muñoz Arce 2015). This phenomenon of a hegemonic position of knowledge´s production from the Global North is criticized in academic debates by feminist, post-and decolonial perspectives (cf. Lugones 2008; Mignolo 2003, Santos 2010 ). Decolonial and feminist epistemology critiques can sharpen the eye for the effects of domination. In order to reduce these effects, it is necessary to recourse to marginalized positions. This dissertation project wants to connect these critical positions in order to make a contribution to the necessary, critical consciousness' in social work (cf. IASSW 2014). Based on feminist, decolonial and postcolonial epistemology critiques, it is assumed that knowledge is constructed and situated, as well as the hegemonic effects of this production of knowledge must be reflected (cf. Kisnerman 2003, Muñoz-Arce 2015, Molina 2004, Clarke 2012, Breuer et al 2018). This dissertation project aims to contribute to the 'critical awareness' demanding by the IASSW (2014) by reconstructing debates and experiences of critical social work in Latin America, especially in Nicaragua, and making them accessible to debates on social work in Germany, especially their self-comprehension. One focus of the dissertation lies on the reconstruction of the reconceptualization movement, as it can be seen as the seed of a critical social work project in Latin America (social work in Nicaragua was part of that movement). Since this movement explicitly opposed the 'imposition' of traditional social work from the Global North, this movement can be interpreted as a decolonial impulse (cf. Anders-Egg 1989). The second main focus lies on studying the interdependence of the feminist movement and critical social work in Nicaragua. In my master thesis I have dealt with precisely this question. It emerged that this reconstruction should play a significant role in critical social work in Nicaragua (and Latin America as a whole). I work with the grounded theory as itself offers an approbiate research approach, since this style of research is particularly adequate for investigating a research topic about which still exist hardly any scientific publications (comp. Breuer 2018) and in which the questions, how power asymmetries and my own subjectivity and social positiones influences the research process are seen as relevant parts of the investigation. brief discussion and questions for supervisory panel: • How can that work contribute to minimize the gap between hegemonic and marginalized knowledge when it`s writer is part of the hegemonic circle?

Non-abusing Mothers' Relational Agency After Their Child's Extra-Familial Sexual Abuse Disclosure.
Hanife Serin Phd

Literature up-to-date demonstrates that the concept of agency has not been sufficiently investigated from the perspective of non-abusing mothers of sexually abused children. Maternal agency and social environment is intertwined as non-abusing mothers are both actors and acted upon. It is suggested that the concept of agency must be investigated in relational sense rather than defining it as holding this ability, being the subject of events, or having the ability of freely acting and making decisions without social stigmatization or external constraints. There are also situations in which non-abusing mothers of sexually abused children feel constrained but they are still able to make their own decisions or actions. This article aims to find out how non-abusing mothers practise their agency in their own socio-cultural circumstances. Their narratives present that they utilize “relational” agency since they usually make decisions or have actions on behalf of their sexually abused children. This article presents findings of a qualitative study of the lived experiences of eight non-abusing mothers in Turkish Cypriot Community. The narratives of the mothers were gathered via in-depth interviews and data was analysed utilizing Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The findings consist of four super-ordinate themes including making sense of the child sexual abuse (CSA); self-appraisal of women as mothers related to CSA disclosure; coping strategies; and experiences on means and obstacles after the CSA disclosure. More information on sub-themes highlighting the concept of agency will be stated once the analysis process is completed.

Expectations of victims/survivors of childhood sexual abuse towards “Aufarbeitung” and recognition
Bianca Nagel Plenum

Working through the past of child sexual abuse (“Aufarbeitung”) is not only a challenge for survivors but for society at large and therefore for social work. Survivors of child sexual abuse often experience stigmatization as a result of disclosure or seeking help and subsequently can already anticipate negative responses, which can prevent disclosure and lead to social exclusion. In view of its global definition, social work must focus on promoting social change, social development and social cohesion. One challenge is to support and to give recognition to survivors, and to build bridges between survivors, support systems and society as a whole. In 2016 the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse in Germany was appointed to investigate all forms of child sexual abuse in Germany, to raise public awareness and to promote a better communal understanding of child protection. For that, private sessions are conducted, where survivors can tell their stories, as well as public hearings to examine different key issues (like sexual abuse in families, the church or the GRD). Additionally, various research projects are conducted in the framework of the commission. One study (2016 to 2019, conducted by SoFFI F. Freiburg/Berlin) focusses on the expectations of survivors of childhood sexual abuse of “Aufarbeitung”: What do they expect for their personal coping on an individual level? What are their expectations towards the Independent Inquiry and towards society? We identified where interviewees see requirements for changes within politics and society as well as how and by whom they think these changes can be made. For this we collected data using qualitative and quantitative research methods. In two online-questionnaires 316 and 103 survivors were asked (amongst other questions) about their assessment of the aims and the work of the Inquiry. To discuss selected topics, for example “stigmatization of victims”, “societal dealing with perpetrators” or “powerlessness and empowerment”, we conducted seven group discussions. To gain a deeper understanding we also conducted 51 qualitative interviews with 44 women and nine men between 26 and 59 years old. In these, we focused on different subjective views and theories: we asked about definitions of abstract concepts like “recognition of suffering and injustice”. The answers showed a broad spectrum of expectations, amongst others aimed at specific individuals (like family members or perpetrators) or organizations (like the church or the school where the abuse happened), the legal system or politics. Others were aimed at society to recognize the injustice but also the impact that the abuse can have on the life of survivors or to enable disclosure without stigmatization. To provide recognition avoid stigmatization and prevent social exclusion are essential elements of practices of social work. It is important that survivors feel as full members of society, get support tailored to their needs and get access to working life despite psychological trauma. To find the balance between help, support and control can be a critical issue, especially in the perception of those on the receiving end. For that, specific knowledge and education are important.

Positioning Social Justice: Reclaiming Social Work's Organizing Value in Divisive Times
Dassi Postan-Aizik Plenum

The study examines social justice as a core value for social work in the context of diversity and divisiveness. While social justice is an organizing value for the profession, formulation of practice principles that link social justice goals with daily realities presents significant challenges for social workers and educators. Interpretations of social justice are deeply affected by different perspectives, contested positions, and unequal power dynamics. Openness to diverse perspectives, including diverse understandings of social justice, can create challenges. We explore two research question: Is social justice still a foundational value for social work? How do we manage diverse conceptions of social justice in multi-cultural practice and educational settings? Description of methods Study participants were students enrolled in the binational-interprofessional seminar "Social Justice in Divided Cities" during 2014–2017. The seminar was a partnership between the schools of social work, law and nursing in the University of Haifa (Israel) and the University of Maryland (U.S.A). Students from both countries were immigrants and non-immigrants of racially, ethnically, and religiously diverse backgrounds. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with 16 American and 15 Israeli participants. We used thematic analysis to develop a unified coding scheme that we applied to all study data. The data were analysed using NVivo 12 software to identify commonalities and divergences, as well as descriptive analysis of participant's evolving understanding of justice. We analysed the data with an interpretive, phenomenological lens that privileged participants’ perspectives. Results The findings reveal three main themes: 1) Social justice emerged as a solid organizing framework through which participants made their identities, beliefs, and experiences explicit. 2) Social justice also emerged as a disorganizing concept, which arose as participants engaged with others with different identities, beliefs, and experiences. This theme conveys how dialogue elicits different, often contradicting, ideas and perspectives. 3) Social justice was a reorganizing concept through which positions were renegotiated while participants worked together and related to each other in a wider social context. Discussion and implications Social justice continues to play an important role in social work. Nonetheless it is both an organizing and disorganizing value as its interpretation and implementation is deeply affected by context and perspective. This is particularly significant in multicultural settings in which individuals and groups pose conflicting demands. We suggest the use of positionality to address the challenges in implementing social justice-aware practice and education. Positionality describes both an individual’s worldview and their stance vis-a-vis a specific task, while emphasizing the situated nature of identity and power relations in the production of knowledge and (inter)actions. The use of positionality in practice and education does not create a universal perspective but enables critical dialogue around social justice. Social workers cannot fully prepare for all possibilities in an uncertain reality of conflict and insecurity. However, this study demonstrates that positionality may serve as a starting point for shared action toward achieving social justice goals, even when differences may not be fully reconcilable.

Becoming a fellow citizen through elderly care: Educational and integrational pathways of refugees in Denmark
Marianne Bruhn Kjeldsen Phd

Calculations have shown that there will soon be a massive lack of welfare workers within the field of elderly care in Denmark. As a result of this challenge, a number of municipalities have chosen to apply the ‘Integrationsgrunduddannelse’ (IGU) policy with a focus on recruiting new employees for this area. The (IGU) policy embodies an education and integration strategy in Danish policy and provides an integration training course. According to the IGU-legislation, the purpose of the IGU is to ensure the possibility of work and educational upgrading of refugees whose qualifications and productivity are not yet meeting the requirements of the Danish labor market. The IGU policy rhetoric also claims that this strategy will give the refugees qualifications which provide the basis for commencing a vocational education or achieving permanent employment in the Danish labor market. The rationale behind this approach is that many of the refugees, and mainly women, are experienced in taking care of older family members in their home countries. These ideas square with the research finding that caring work will continue to be relegated to the private domain of human activity, and is gendered, yet also classed and racialized. The main objective of this doctoral research project is to challenge and investigate the stereotypical and socially unjust underlying assumptions at stake in these recent policy and practice developments in Denmark. The dominant social policy construction entails that refugees (and especially refugee women) should be submitted to an educational upgrading to work as professionals in elderly care. As a teacher at the IGU, I have experienced that the participants represent a very diverse and heterogeneous minority group, as they come to Denmark with different educational backgrounds and competences, experiences and aspirations. Some of them are illiterate and some of them have completed a long-term education. These people are in more than one way in a transition: between place, class, states and position; between the attachment to their homeland and culture and becoming a fellow citizen in the Danish community, between being recognized because of their education in their homeland and having their education misrecognized in the host country and being in the transition through education. The purpose of this PhD project is to explore: • The formal policy rhetoric in Denmark on elderly care and the role of education in training a professional workforce, and on the IGU policy with a focus on recruiting new employees for this particular area of welfare state services. • The life histories of the refugees who are following the IGU-program. The main objective of this cluster of research activities is to investigate the diverse histories and educational pathways of the refugees • How the efforts made by the various educational actors in this education and integration (IGU) program relates to, and interfere with, the diverse histories and educational backgrounds of the refugees. The project seeks to explore how this education affects their actual possibilities in commencing a vocational education or achieving employment on the Danish labour market equivalent to Danish citizens.

Children’s position after divorce according to Kosovo's legislation
Eneida Lajqi Phd

Children have a sensible position in society because they are subjects of a right, they are people who do not have capacity to act, meaning that they are not able to keep obligations and enjoy the rights just like other people who by reaching the age of majority gain the full capacity to act. The marriage settlement can be described as a very complex process which not only produces legal effects in terms of rights and duties between spouses but it also produces legal effects both in terms of children’s position born of one legitimate marriage. Kosovo's legislation equates both marital children as well as children born of a relationship or known as children born from an illegitimate marriage. However, how does a marriage settlement affect a child's position, how harmful might be the marriage settlement , how are the rights of duties of children be regulated, which is the role of parents in offering a good life for children even after the marriage is resolved, then the issues focused on care and common maintenance of children are just some of the aspects that will be discussed in this paper which deals with the position of the child after the marriage is resolved under the legislation of the Republic of Kosovo.

Critical reflection in social work education: rhetorical and artistic perspectives.
Laura Van Beveren Phd

In my doctoral research, I study the notion of ‘critical reflection’ in relation to the linguistic and interpretive dimensions of social and behavioural sciences. More specifically, my aim is to explore how both a rhetorical and an artistic perspective might inform a pedagogy of ‘symbol-wisdom’ (Enoch, 2004) in higher education in social work, psychology and teaching. Within the domain of social work, the rhetorical perspective is studied as an analytical and pedagogical framework (Ratcliffe, 2005) to develop a critical and reflexive awareness of the symbolic and linguistic construction of ‘social problems’ (Gregory & Holloway, 2005). The arts on their hand, are both approached as a research site, in which various constructions of social problems can be identified and studied, and as a form of research in itself in which new constructions of social problems can be created or produced (Borgdorff, 2011; Rutten et al., 2013). In a first study, rhetoric was applied as a methodological framework to explore various discursive constructions of ‘social engagement’ and ‘social justice’ in ‘The New Forest’, a four-year artistic project from the socially engaged theatre collective Wunderbaum. Based on the rhetorical analysis, the concepts of ‘social justice’ and ‘social engagement’ were exposed as very ambiguous notions, that can be operationalized in emancipatory and transformative ways (generating change, imagination and keeping research-oriented attitudes), but also in more conservative ways (functioning as entrepreneurs and affirming the social order). It was argued that a cross-fertilization between social work and socially engaged arts might be fruitful to enable critical reflection on the ambiguous nature of social work as this dialogue generates questions about what it requires to keep social engagement and social justice aspirations in the heart of social work (Lorenz, 2016). In a second study, on which I will report in this presentation, the rhetorical perspective was introduced as both a methodological and pedagogical perspective to master students in the field of social work. Within the context of a Cultural Studies course, students learned about and worked with theories, concepts, and analytical approaches from the field of new rhetoric (mainly building on the work of new rhetoricians Kenneth Burke and Krista Ratcliffe). Next, they were asked to rhetorically analyse different constructions of poverty within Dutch artist Renzo Martens’ movie/documentary ‘Enjoy Poverty’. Students reported and reflected on their analysis both in individual written portfolio’s and in face-to-face group discussions with other students. Both data sets will be analysed with a focus on a) the students’ specific constructions of poverty, and b) the critical moves of the students. The discussion will focus on the question a) whether the rhetorical perspective enabled poverty-aware perspectives and attitudes, and b) what kind of critical pedagogies the rhetorical perspective can(‘t) offer to the context of social work education.

Alcoholics` motivation to become sober and maintain their sobriety within Alcoholics Anonymous support groups
Adriana Lavinia Bulumac Plenum

Background and purpose: While addiction is a significant social problem in Romania, there has been little research into support groups as an intervention in Romania, despite the growing number of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) support groups found there in urban areas. Alcoholism is usually treated in Romania as a moral weakness, a vice, while alcoholics are usually stigmatized, discriminated, marginalized and socially excluded and labeled as drunks. Although Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) has been found to be effective in other countries, unfortunately in Romania it is barely known of its existance even among physicians. The purpose of this exploratory study, which is the first known study of twelve step programs in Romania, was to explore Alcoholics’ motivation to become sober and maintain their sobriety among those who are participants of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) support groups in Romania. The study specifically explores both the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of AA attendees, as well as other factors, such as relationships, professional status and economic status. Methods: This study used qualitative methods to explore the motivations of alcoholics to become sober and maintain their sobriety. The research participants included 11 people (9 men and 2 women) who participated in three Alcoholics Anonymous groups in Bucharest, Romania. A 20 question open-ended interview guide was used for conducting 45-60 minute in-depth interviews with participants in April and May of 2018. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Findings: Themes related to intrinsic motivations to become sober emerged as a much stronger theme among alcoholics who desired and maintained their sobriety than extrinsic factors. The most common intrinsic motivations were low self-esteem (alcoholics with low self-esteem where those who had lost almost everything and didn’t want to lose anything else – they were the ones who had a strong desire to change and were willing to practice the 12 step programme, while Alcoholics with high self-esteem were the ones who relapsed), dissatisfaction with alcohol consumption and self and an internal desire to change. Extrinsic motivations, while not as preponderant as intrinsic motivations, included family pressure on the individual to change and the recommendations of physicians. It is interesting that extrinsic motivation turned into intrinsic motivation as alcoholics sobriety grew. All subjects of the research group have a personal motivation to maintain their sobriety. In the case of 4 alcoholics the internal motivation is reinforced by extrinsic motivation, which takes the form of appreciation, achievements and improvement of family relations. The commitment theory could explain this shift in alcoholics` motivation since AA provides a solution to problems that they experience. Alcoholics get involed in AA, invest time and energy in AA activities, sacrifice their old identities in favour of new ones. They become commited to AA and to recovery. Conclusions and implications: The findings suggest that those working in the area of substance abuse should pay more attention to the intrinsic motivations to change for alcoholics, as these appear to play an important role in becoming and maintaining sobriety.

Alcoholics` motivation to become sober and maintain their sobriety within Alcoholics Anonymous support groups
Adriana Lavinia Bulumac Phd

Background and purpose: While addiction is a significant social problem in Romania, there has been little research into support groups as an intervention in Romania, despite the growing number of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) support groups found there in urban areas. Alcoholism is usually treated in Romania as a moral weakness, a vice, while alcoholics are usually stigmatized, discriminated, marginalized and socially excluded and labeled as drunks. Although Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) has been found to be effective in other countries, unfortunately in Romania it is barely known of its existance even among physicians. The purpose of this exploratory study, which is the first known study of twelve step programs in Romania, was to explore Alcoholics’ motivation to become sober and maintain their sobriety among those who are participants of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) support groups in Romania. The study specifically explores both the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of AA attendees, as well as other factors, such as relationships, professional status and economic status. Methods: This study used qualitative methods to explore the motivations of alcoholics to become sober and maintain their sobriety. The research participants included 11 people (9 men and 2 women) who participated in three Alcoholics Anonymous groups in Bucharest, Romania. A 20 question open-ended interview guide was used for conducting 45-60 minute in-depth interviews with participants in April and May of 2018. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Findings: Themes related to intrinsic motivations to become sober emerged as a much stronger theme among alcoholics who desired and maintained their sobriety than extrinsic factors. The most common intrinsic motivations were low self-esteem (alcoholics with low self-esteem where those who had lost almost everything and didn’t want to lose anything else – they were the ones who had a strong desire to change and were willing to practice the 12 step programme, while Alcoholics with high self-esteem were the ones who relapsed), dissatisfaction with alcohol consumption and self and an internal desire to change. Extrinsic motivations, while not as preponderant as intrinsic motivations, included family pressure on the individual to change and the recommendations of physicians. It is interesting that extrinsic motivation turned into intrinsic motivation as alcoholics sobriety grew. All subjects of the research group have a personal motivation to maintain their sobriety. In the case of 4 alcoholics the internal motivation is reinforced by extrinsic motivation, which takes the form of appreciation, achievements and improvement of family relations. The commitment theory could explain this shift in alcoholics` motivation since AA provides a solution to problems that they experience. Alcoholics get involed in AA, invest time and energy in AA activities, sacrifice their old identities in favour of new ones. They become commited to AA and to recovery. Conclusions and implications: The findings suggest that those working in the area of substance abuse should pay more attention to the intrinsic motivations to change for alcoholics, as these appear to play an important role in becoming and maintaining sobriety.

Social work, welfare and health: Enhancing social rights in inter-professional collaboration
Nele Feryn Phd

Social and health care systems in Europe, as well in Belgium, are faced with different challenges: demographic changes, complex health care needs, limited access to care etc. Additionally, the connection between social factors and health has been widely recognized, as there is evidence of differences in health between people from lower and higher social classes. Recent reforms in the Belgian welfare state have shifted some powers to the regions. This led to a decentralisation of responsibilities for social and health care from the national to the regional and local governments. The policy in Flanders (the Dutch speaking part of Belgium) transfers some responsibilities to local authorities. Meanwhile, this policy is encouraging the enhancement of collaborative working between social work, well-being and health care systems and the key professions within these services. For the municipalities, this has urged the need for creating new local systems where partnerships at the organisational and inter-professional level become crucial. The inter-professional collaboration is increasingly explored to meet the complexity and multidimensionality of health and social problems. This is prompted by the current idea that the organisation of social services is problematic, since these services are not responsive enough to people’s needs. The envisaged collaborations are expected to provide an answer to the fragmentation and categorical organisation of social services. Effectively connecting means collaborating with others about important values. In regarding these partnerships, the purpose is to counteract the non-take up of social rights and ensure access to primary care services for every citizen. However, there is a risk that the emphasis of these policies will be largely on the organisational level and the change process will be reduced to a technical-methodological rearrangement exercise, with not enough emphasis on the practice of collaboration and the right to social services. While the assumption that complex social and health issues are better managed cooperatively is widely endorsed in literature and by policy makers in Belgium, there is no clear insight in the realisation of the right to social services. Therefore, this study aims to examine how the transition of primary care in Flanders takes place at the intersection between social work and health and how (and if) inter-professional collaboration contributes to the realisation of social rights. Additionally, the purpose of this study is to map out the factors -facilitating and obstructing- associated to the potential learning effects of inter-professional collaboration.

Comparison of Swedish and German social service: between managerial steering and professional autonomy
Manuela Sjöström Plenum

Background The paper strives to shed new light on highly demanding yet simultaneously challenging working life in contemporary social service and the mechanisms behind. Previous research illustrates the critical issues of social service in both Sweden and Germany: deteriorating psycho-social working conditions, high levels of sick leave and staff turn-over. Previous research also reveals that little is known about similarities and differences concerning use of standards, principles, documentation, and performance control for managerial steering, i.e. New Public Management (NPM). Research shows, that the countries have chosen different paths concerning NPM: with Germany as a late and reluctant implementer and Sweden as a radical and early implementer. Comparisons between these countries are highly desirable as both share the existence of professionalized welfare states but have chosen different ways to organize and govern the welfare state. Also, little is known about similarities/differences in how professionalism is displayed in social services; or the interplay between management and professionals concerning freedom and control in this specific area. Our study will contribute to research about the intersection between managerial steering and professional discretion and autonomy in social services. Aim The aim of the paper is to compare how coercive social service work with children and youths is regulated, managed and organized in Sweden and Germany in order to find similarities and differences. Our research aims to answer the following research questions: How is coercive social work with children regulated and organized in both countries? Method The presentation’s comparative approach will be based on how the exercise of public authority within the realm of social service in child protection is described in standard Swedish and German social work literature. We draw on a preliminary analysis concerning similarities and differences concerning the regulation and organization of coercive social work with children and youths in these two countries. Results We describe in which way a “standard” case of child protection from report to decision would be dealt with by social service in Germany and Sweden. It relates to aspects of welfare state, context, organisation, actors, professional education and practice, managerial work and decision-making, value considerations and theoretical foundations. The paper covers comparisons stressing principles and problematizations in the intersection of managerial steering and professional autonomy in this specific area, creating a stepping-stone for deeper empirical comparisons.

The Social Turn and beyond: Art and its societal role
Hanne Dewinter Phd

Debates on the social impacts of the arts have played a prominent role in cultural policy and research for the past three decades. Claims for what the arts ‘do’ to people and the ways in which they can bring about both individual and societal transformation are plentiful, not seldom in association with a wider debate about the aims and rationales for public support of the arts. Both, within and outside the arts, questions about the role and value of the arts in society can no longer be ignored. The list of outcomes that the subsidized arts are expected to achieve varies from dealing with tangible social issues, such as poverty and social exclusion over personal health and wellbeing, to local and national economic development. The same line of thought is reflected in recent discussions about (post)colonialism and decolonisation in the arts or museums being asked to reinvent themselves as social agents. Even though theories about the value and function of the arts have marked Western intellectual history since Aristotle, this debate has especially been fueled by the rise of participatory arts, which since the publication of Francois Matarasso’s ‘Use or Ornament’ in the mid 1990s, is indeed the area of the arts to which social benefits are most often attributed. Based on the recognition of a plurality of norms and values by addressing missing artistic forms and taking into account cultural reference patterns from the people involved, these practices have increasingly been put forward as a (new) pedagogical project that creates opportunities for engagement with the challenges and failures of a society in transition. In line with a growing international tendency and going under a variety of names, participatory arts practices have become an almost indispensable ingredient of current public policies. Although questions towards social impact have recently arisen in other domains as well (for example, in the field of sports), the adoption of the social impacts of the arts as a policy rationale – which justifies public expenditure in the arts on the grounds of the advantages that they bring to the nation – has become a European trend. I my presentation I will argue, however, that the ongoing debate fails to be explicit about the underlying agendas to which this social role or function of the arts intentionally and/or unintentionally accommodates. While from the 1990 onwards various authors have taken a clear position in the debate about what the social dimension of the arts could engender and critical voices have been raised about art and cultural policies attaching themselves to social and economic agendas, academic research has paid little attention to the perspective of intermediary figures, who are working in the liminal spaces between art, market and society. By reporting on the findings of semi-structured interviews with artistic directors, programme coordinators and art administrators working within different art and cultural organisations in Flanders, we aim to capture this existing gap in literature.

Social Differences in Social Work – Construction and Transformation using the Example of the General Social Service
Jan Pöter Phd

Social differences are not only subjects of many national social and political debates, but consequently also in the social sciences. Particularly under the terms “intersectionality”, “heterogeneity” and “diversity”, questions of (de-)construction, recognition and inequality are debated with some controversy. Analyses with regard to Germany show that social differences are not only of current but also of fundamental importance for social work: Social work depends on the distinction between normality and deviation in order to legitimize itself as an instance of social integration in the welfare state, and can only substantiate this distinction in practice on the basis of characteristics of difference. In that sense, social work does not have an exclusively reactive reference to social differences, but is actively involved in the (re-)production of categories and classifications. These theoretical insights raise questions regarding social work practice(s): Which categories of social difference are currently viewed as relevant and how are they evaluated? How are corresponding positionings constructed and transformed in the dynamics between professionals and addressees? The doctoral project takes up this desideratum using the example of the German communal General Social Service, which provides counselling for children, adolescents and parents in a variety of problems, coordinates individual child and youth welfare services and intervenes in the event of threats to the welfare of minors. The methodological framework is formed by the guidelines of a constructivist Grounded Theory Methodology, which overcomes the positivist premises of the original approach, while preserving the goal of empirically founded theory formation and adapting the corresponding methodological steps. The data will be collected within in a district-related team of the General Social Service using ethnographic methods. Following the everyday work of the employees, observation protocols will be drawn up, artefacts (such as instruments) will be collected and ethnographic interviews will be conducted. In order to maintain the necessary openness of the research perspective, neither will categories be derived in advance based on social or field-specific theory nor will a one-sided positioning be undertaken between ethnomethodological and poststructuralist theories regarding the (re-)production of social differences. The aim is to create an impulse for (self-)critical social work through an empirically founded theorization of the relation of social work to social differences. After basic theoretical and methodological clarifications, practical research is currently being prepared. It is due to start in the summer of 2019, and the first empirical results will hopefully be presented at the conference in addition to the project's design.

Methodic principles as starting point of social work methods
Judith Metz Plenum

Background: This paper reflects on a search for possibilities of developing social work methods which can be substantiated by research and relates to the diversities existing in social work practices. The background forms the discussion about the body of knowledge (BOK) of social work. Current models such as Evidence Based Practice, Practice Based Evidence and Common Factors are not suitable for developing a method substantiated by research. The limitation of Evidence Based Practice to a causal series of acts does not do justice to the complexity and dynamics of open approach methods. Practice Based Evidence does offer sufficient scope for this but lacks guidance for how the diversity of working methods, target groups, goals and contexts can be captured under one denominator and how this can be substantiated with empirical research. The Common Factors model is interesting as an example of how exactly those factors can be identified as communal within various working methods, target groups, goals and contexts and can be substantiated with research. The problem with this model is that the identified factors such as the working relation or the method are too general for describing and substantiating the way in which social work methods specifically functions. Question is: how to grasp the methodic actions of social workers in such a way that it contributes to the development of a knowledge base of social work which can be substantiated with research and does relate to the diversities in social work practices. Main point of presentation: Programme Evaluation (PE) offers a possible perspective. In evaluating programmes of social character it focusses on finding a workable balance between contradictory interests through a pragmatic orientation on the underlying needs of those parties directly concerned. As productive route for both doing justice to the complexity, dynamics and specificity of the practices as well for developing robust knowledge PE suggests methodic principles (MP’s). MP’s are the guiding principles which are the basis of methodic actions of social workers in interaction with the target groups and the contexts. It is characteristic of MP’s that they exist alongside each other and are utilized dependent on the situation, goal, person and resources available and has the potential for solidifying, substantiating and transferring. Applying the concept of MP’s on method development in professional youth work, effect research shows that MP’s make it possible to prove how young people perceive the actions of their youth workers and to what extend it contributes to the aimed development of young people. Conclusion: This paper demonstrates that greater attention is urgently needed for the development of a knowledge basis for social work methods which do relate to the diversities in social work practices and can be substantiated by research. Also it makes visible that MP’s might be a possible fruitful starting point for social work methods because it has the potential for solidifying, substantiating and transferring knowledge and relate to the diversities in target groups, goals and contexts of social work practice.

Irish social work’s epistemic borders: (Im)possibilities of cultural democracy and social justice
Washington Marovatsanga Phd

It is widely accepted that Eurocentric cultural hegemony dominates social work through Eurocentric values underpinning its knowledge base. This dominance has led to the propagation of specific western norms as cultural universals. Young (1990: 50) plainly describes the imposition of one’s cultural norms on other cultures as ‘cultural oppression’, yet paradoxically, social work rhetoric repudiates all forms of oppression. Globally, social work and social welfare systems have imposed western middle-class norms as rigid standards for all clients. The social and cultural diversity that forms the current context of practice worldwide has, however, challenged the ‘myth of sameness’ underlying the historic social work tradition; a tradition rooted in the universalist assumption that practice theories are broadly applicable to all persons because ‘deep down we are all the same’ (Pinderhuhges,1989: 24). Some scholars contend some of the colonial era ethnocentric assumptions, underpinning traditional social work, have endured and that their inadequacy, in terms of theories and intervention methods and in research, are increasingly exposed in some critical contexts seeking to valorise indigenous knowledge systems (Row et al., 2015). The Republic of Ireland is now officially a multicultural country as reflected in its changing population demographics and policy pronouncements. Nevertheless, in social work teaching, practice and research very little has changed to reflect this multiculturalism in terms of onto-epistemological pluralism. It is acknowledged that Ireland is situated within a western European sociocultural context that is saturated in historical and contemporary notions of Western racial and cultural superiority. It can safely be assumed, therefore that – as in many such countries – ‘Whiteness’, as a hegemonic, national identity is naturalised and relentlessly constitutes itself by constructing a margin. When applied to social work, such a neo-colonial ideological orientation is at odds entirely with the profession’s rhetorical egalitarian claims. The recent findings from my research suggests the onto epistemological boundaries that precludes inclusivity of other non- western paradigms in Irish social work is enabled and maintained at the collective unconscious ethos level through three strategies based on monocultural rationality: nativist ideological gate keeping that ensures maintenance of monocultural curricula and theorisation, restricted recruitment of culturally distinct and visibly different students, and a reluctance to admit qualified Black and Ethnic minority practitioners to teach social work in Irish universities. All these three triangulate within a neoliberal policy framework to ensure the status quo of monocultural infrastructure of Irish social work remains intact. This paper therefore aims to make visible the creation, maintenance, and embeddedness of certain cultural norms in ‘approved’ discourses that make it difficult for the majority of White Irish social work educators to step outside the onto -epistemological borders of a limiting fixed Eurocentric historicism. The paper also questions the role of Gramsci’s organic intellectuals within the Irish social work academy and the (im)possibility of such ethnocentric and neoliberal and racialised orientation in achieving cognitive justice and hence real social justice that is truly representative of the 21st multicultural realities.

Promoting quality of life for people at the end-of-life stage: an ethical challenge in the professional acting of the Social Worker
Berta Jacinto Plenum

The quest for meaning for Quality of Life (QOL) seems to be as old as civilization. Since antiquity, even before the Christian Era, attempts have already been made to define QOL. In his writing Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle (384-322 BC) mentioned that distinct persons conceived "good life" or well-being as synonyms of happiness (Vido et al, 2007 in Jacinto 2010). In 1995, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a definition of QOL: “as individual's perception of their position in life, in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns". This definition is a broad-ranging concept going beyond the physical symptomatology and taking into account the importance of systems of cultural significance, values and personal preferences; thus we have a subjective view on QOL (WHO, 1997:1). This concept of QOL as directed to the individual evaluation of each one’s life, why do we apply it in such a sensitive and usually so painful context as the end-of-life? We know in contemporary society death is faced with feelings of loss and withdrawal and the representation we have of it is of horror, useless and painful suffering, where will the QOL of a person at a terminally ill situation be? Is it not a paradox to associate death and QOL? Which extent can the Social Worker be useful in promoting QOL in the life of the terminally ill person and his/her family? Promoting QOL to the person in the end-of-life is also giving time to be heard. The Active Listening allows the professional to give back to the person at the end-of-life stage one basic right - the one of autonomy, a fundamental ethical principle of the Code of Ethics for Social Workers in Portugal (2018). Through a critical and reflexive review of the literature, this proposal aims to deepen the professional ethical project of Social Work, integrating the promotion of QOL in the process of monitoring the terminally ill patient and his family.

Developing a competence model for the vocational field of school social work
Michael Schieder Phd

The following project deals with developing a competence model for the vocational field of school social work. Despite of steadily rising employment figures, the continuous and sustainable establishment of social work at school is not achieved. However, the function of school social work with respect to youth welfare is not enough recognized. In the area of higher education, the field of school social work is highly underrepresented in bachelor and master programs – although it is one of the largest working fields in the area of child and youth welfare (Köhler, 2009). Particularly with respect to the acceptance and knowledge of the different professions at school, we can find significant potential – especially in the area of interdisciplinary studies – which has not yet been utilized. In order to remain capable of the current higher education policy debate, we developed the competence model with respect to the Qualifications Framework for German Higher Education Qualifications (HQR) and the underlying competence model (KMK, 2017). I addition, the professional analogy can be found in the compatibility to the Qualification Framework Social Work (Schäfer & Bartosch, 2016) and the Qualification Profile School Social Work (Kooperationsverbund Schulsozialarbeit, 2009). The construction of the competence model pursues issues of labor market and education policy and is able to work as an orientation framework for developing an own professional profile for qualified social workers in the field of school. Developing the competence model, we used a between-method-triangulation design (Denzin, 1987) combined with a mixed-methods-approach (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011), as it was necessary to consider different sources and target groups. In a first step, the existing qualification profile of school social work was revised. The corresponding dimensions were subsequently used as categories for the content analysis of relevant literature of the field of school social work (Stamm & Schwab, 1995) and significant job advertisements (Sailer, 2009). For considering the perspective of the vocational practice, professionals in the field of school social work were surveyed in terms of necessary competencies in their profession. Furthermore, this perspective is supplemented by expert interviews with executives of child and youth welfare. Finally, the integration of the different perspectives leads to the development of the competence profile for the vocational field of school social work. The project bases on the following main research question: How can we conceptualize a competence model for the vocational field of school social work, which corresponds to the HQR? The main research question in turn can be substantiated as follows: Which aspects of the Qualification Framework Social Work have to be considered? How is the perspective of science and research on competencies in school social work? How do professionals estimate the requirements and necessary competencies of school social work? Which aspects are relevant for executives, when recruiting new employees in the field of school social work? Which expectations do carriers of child and youth welfare show with respect to competencies for professionals in school social work? Which differences and similarities can be found in the different perspectives?

Reflection in Health and Social Work Education
Monika Cajko Eibicht Phd

In my research project I am focusing on the concept of reflection within the context of nursing and social work education. Research and literature addressing reflective practice in nursing and social work suggest that workers, who are capable to reflect effectively, are more proficient in developing strategies promoting a flexible, individualized, and holistic approach to clients. Such professionals are also better equipped to resolve problems through thoughtful reasoning, and more inclined to monitor and enhance their professional competence (Brain, 2009; Rees, 2013 in Parrish and Crooks, 2013). Many experts believe that the best time to adopt the reflective thinking is during the professional training (Asselin et al., 2015; Tutticci et al., 2016). Nursing, as well as social work education abroad, has since long embraced the concept of reflection as an invaluable tool to help students learn from practice and prepare them for entering the dynamic character of the work environments (Jootun and McGarry, 2014). Despite of the listed benefits, on the grounds of Czech Republic, researchers point out that reflection is not practiced to its full benefit here. This seems to apply on both, professionals and educational institutions (Svojanovsky, 2017; Kolar, 2012; Machackova, 2012). There are no comparisons that would test any differences in practicing reflection between the nursing and the social work students, however some studies suggest that the latter have developed better dispositions to reflection (Havrdova et al., 2010). As part of my dissertation thesis, I intend to explore the extend that reflection is currently used in the selected Czech nursing and social work educational institutions. In attempt to choose suitable instruments that would measure the differences in levels of reflection at the beginning and during the education, I decided to use the SRIS (Grant et al., 2002) and PHLMS (Cardaciotto et al. 2008) scales. Both scales have repeatedly demonstrated good psychometric parameters and validity in their original versions and are currently being validated by our Faculty research team for their specific project. For the purpose of this pilot study I have been granted permission to use the yet unpublished data from the Faculty’s validation sample of a 1 000 randomly selected representative for the Czech general population. I will look for any differences between the two groups of nursing and social work students, and, compare the scores of both scales to the Czech general population. For this Pilot study, I have formulated the following hypotheses: 1) The population of the nursing and social work students will score higher in reflection compared to the general population. 2) The social work students will score higher in both scales compared to the nursing students. The hypotheses will be tested on 108 nursing and social work undergraduate and graduate students at various stages of their education who completed the SRIS and PHLMS self-report questionnaires. The scores will be compared to the validation sample available through the Faculty Project.

A reflexive model for challenging boundaries in the slipstream of non take-up.
Hans Grymonprez Plenum

First deployed from economical reasoning and further developed in social policy-oriented research non take-up seems a well-established concept. According to the European Commission, non-take-up (NTU) is an indicator for all kind of discrepancies between services and benefits offered and the usage of these offers and benefits. However, NTU entails also possible reductions towards activating individuals: the individual is responsible for claiming its rights. Hence, non take-up might end up as just another way of constructing the problematic ‘other’ which is reflected in client-constructions such as ‘hard to reach’ or ‘care-avoiders’. In the Belgian context social rights are inscribed in the constitution, where the law on public social welfare obliges the state to secure everyone a dignified existence. In a rapidly transforming society - particularly shifting policy contexts - guaranteeing fundamental rights is under pressure. As elsewhere in Europe welfare rights are increasingly conditionalized while access to services is often a path full of obstacles. In a recent social work conference in Brussels, the importance of guaranteeing fundamental social rights was extensively debated and acknowledged as a core task of social work. Nevertheless, also social work plays a role in those processes in which individuals refuse or refrain from claiming or access. It is argued that predictability is crucial to tackle non take up which is exemplified in strategies of automatization and reduction of complexity (Van Mechelen & Van der Heyden, 2017). Though, in the case of social work, Roose (2008) argued social problems are hard to manage and demand space for unpredictability. This is where our model makes and effort to fill in the blanks. Based on work in our research group, we developed a reflexive model to deal with non-take up. Our model challenges different boundaries between individuals and public resources and the processes of negotiation in between. As such, our aim is to bridge the socially constructed divisions the phenomenon of NTU seems to provoke. Our reflective model is constructed from a range of ‘good practices’ in Flanders which deliberately deal with this issue; often through challenging boundaries. This model raises awareness on the role, responsibilities and possibilities to contribute to guarantee fundamental rights, and contributes to develop a more nuanced view on individuals and the ‘them’ and ‘us’- construction. Liese Berkvens, Hans Grymonprez and Britt Dehertogh are researchers of the ISOS research group of the AP University of Applied Sciences, Antwerp (B).

Bridges over troubled waters? Social work as an attempt of building bridges in an area of conflict
Daniela Molnar Plenum

The position of social work can be described as a general “in-betweenness” within opposing polarities, e.g. normalization and exclusion on the one hand and the right to be and participate in the community just as you are (as it is partially laid down in the German Constitution, especially in articles 1 and 3) on the other. Thus, social workers are acting between individuals and “the community” (which is fragmented in itself), trying to build bridges in this area of conflict in their “quest for social justice”, which includes justice for the individual as well as for the community. In effect, social work can be understood as boundary work and contains the role - one among others - of frontier-guard (Keupp 1987; Molnar 2019). Social exclusion often hits those, who are referred to as being “not normal” in some way (Rohrmann 2011). Being presumed as “not normal” often is attributed to a person as a mark of his or her being, it is naturalized and essentialized and to a certain extent presumed to be unchangeable (Maurer 2008; Thieme 2011). Therefore it sets the frame of possibilities for a person’s life: “special” individuals are often included, which also means encased, in “special services” which meet their “special needs” (Rohrmann 2006). This is in stark contrast to the understanding of inclusion as equal and self-determined participation in all parts of community for everyone (Alicke 2013). Despite of the understanding of disabilities as a result of “the interaction between persons with impairments and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinders their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others” (preamble of the Convention of the United Nations on the rights of persons with disabilities (UN-CRPD)), inclusion as a (political) goal often focusses on (individual) persons with impairments and “their” dis-/ capabilities instead of aiming at questioning and changing social conditions. This can be said for several topics relevant in the discussion of inclusion, such as accessibility, mobility, education, work and so on. In effect, there are boundaries of thinking and imagination and borders of participation, which construct the particular area of conflict in which social work and social workers are acting to establish social justice and humanity, aiming to reduce social inequality and establish equal (social) conditions for their addressees (Sünker 2012; Thiersch et al. 2012; Molnar 2019; see also § 1 Abs. 1 SGB I). The human rights perspective can be seen as a normative point of reference for the profession of social work (e.g.: Staub-Bernasconi 2012). The challenges of borders, boundaries and bridges in the area of conflict concerning the topic of in-/ exclusion in regard to persons with disabilities will be addressed from three different points of view, concerning 1. the local level (Kempf/ Jacobi), 2. complex support needs (Reichstein) and 3. the distance between different professions in the field of services for children and youths with and without disabilities (Molnar/ Goldsweer). Input 1: Matthias Kempf/ Lisa Jacobi Building bridges?! - Political participation on a local level Possibilities and challenges for persons with disabilities A key principle of the UN-CRPD is to guarantee the right of persons with disabilities to participate on an equal basis in all political rights (Hirschberg 2010). Persons with disabilities have been fighting for that right for decades (Bösl 2010). In Germany, there is legal basis on the national and state level that supports the right to participate in the organization of public affairs. This acquired legal basis can be seen as a bridge between the interests of persons with and without impairments. Meanwhile, on the local level especially “the interaction between persons with impairments and attitudinal and environmental barriers” (Preamble e) UN-CRPD) is likely to lead to actual disabilities, as it is understood in disabilities studies. Therefore, structures that support self-advocacy locally are of great importance. Two three-year-long research projects focused on the participation of persons with disabilities on the level of local politics. The first project (2012-2016 LAG SELBSTHILFE NRW) showed that the aforementioned “bridges” had not been established yet in most of the municipalities of North Rhine-Westphalia. The second project (2016-2019), this presentation will be focused on, developed and conducted educational workshops in communities. In these workshops local politicians, the local administration and persons with disabilities developed goals and measures to make political participation more mandatory in their community. These workshops were scientifically evaluated and accompanied by online surveys. The results showed, that the gap between these three groups can sustainably be bridged by measures such as these workshops. However, a number of great challenges still need to be addressed: - needed assistance and support is often neither organized nor financed; - attitudinal barriers by local authorities and politicians; - lack of awareness of the right to participate and the benefit of using the expertise of persons with disabilities. Input 2: Martin Reichstein The Reflection of Complex Support Needs in the German Disability Support System The UN-CRPD points out that concepts regarding impairment and disability change over time (e.g. Schmuhl 2010). For the German-speaking area, it can be shown that institutions and services for people with disabilities are in particular involved in defining both concepts and terminology. In this context, Hänsel (2005), referring to the example of special schools, sees a mutual relationship in terms of legitimation. Services for people with intellectual disabilities can be understood as social systems aiming for both self-preservation and reduction of environmental complexity in the sense of Luhmann (1987). It is further assumed that these systems can also be described as organisational fields in the sense of neoinstitutionalist theory (Schädler 2003). Organizations in organizational fields are in a mutual legitimation relationship with each other and search for a legitimation of their activities (ibidem). This being said, a loss of legitimacy can be interpreted as an inducement of complexity in the sense of systems theory. The service system and its subsystems would react to the increased environmental complexity with an increasing differentiation. Assuming that they play an important role in the categorization of impairment and disability, this can also mean proposing and establishing new categorizations. On the basis of these considerations, new (specialized) services for people with disabilities would be developed in the context of a system that searches for legitimacy and which is increasingly differentiating itself. This would lead to subsystems that, at a certain degree of differentiation, could no longer address the needs of clients, especially those with complex needs (Schädler/ Wittchen/ Reichstein 2019). The presentation illustrates its theoretical assumptions referring to the reflection of so-called "challenging behavior" in German disability services (Schädler/ Reichstein 2018). In this context, reference is made to own empirical research. Input 3: Daniela Molnar/ Keno Goldsweer The “logics” of dis-/ability: how to bridge the distance between different professions in services to support children and youths with and without disabilities The presumption of the existence of a dividing line between children and youths with and without disabilities creates two groups: the “normal” ones without disabilities and the “others” with disabilities (Rohrmann 2006, 2011; Maurer 2008). This presumed distinction (which ignores graduation, intersectionality and so on) is mimicked at the professional side: social services are generally separated in services for children and youths without and those with disabilities. Therefore, in Germany, social pedagogy addresses everyone, and special needs education aims especially and exclusively at persons with disabilities. These different pedagogies feature specific basic assumptions, orientations, understandings and so on (in short: logics) (Molnar/ Renker 2019; Moser 2000), thus building borders and boundaries between professions, professionals and social service systems. These are challenged, when we are aiming for social justice for children and youths with disabilities, which means to establish inclusion as equal rights, possibilities and the freedom of choice with regard to participation (with reference to Alicke 2013 and UN-CRPD). To render possible inclusion for children and youths with and without disabilities, we need mutual understanding between the different professions and systems (Thieme/ Silkenbeumer 2019). The different logics of dis-/ ability and their part in building borders and boundaries, which hinder inclusion, will be discussed recurring to two empirical research projects: “Categorization work in services for children and youths” (KatGo, DFG) focusses on the separation of children and youths with and without disabilities in the German youth welfare system, whereas “Interprofessional case construction and cooperation in settings of inclusive education” (FallKo, BMBF) analyses the multiprofessional co-work in schools. These different points of view enable us to go one step further in the challenge to build bridges between the different “logics of dis-/ ability”.

“What is that sound? Who else is there?” Guidelines for video calling in health and social care.
Sarah De Coninck Plenum

Background. Unfortunately, health and social care are not equally accessible to everyone. One way to lower this threshold is by using eHealth, or offering remote care by means of technological advances. eHealth provides the advantage of making social and health care more accessible for marginalized groups and provides the possibility to increase the frequency of contact with vulnerable clients. The use of video calling is one way to engage in eHealth. However, when using video calling, attention must be paid to unique characteristics of the medium. For example: How do you proceed when others are following the consult outside of the image frame? Aim. This project aims to provide methodological guidelines for video calling in health and social care. Methods and materials. Based on a review of the literature and good practices, initial guidelines for video calling in health and social care are developed. During developmental oriented co-creation sessions, these guidelines are presented to an innovation lab consisting of 38 Belgian ambulatory care organizations. This innovation lab consists of organizations within youth care, mental health care, and general health care, interested in exploring the implementation of video calls within their current practice. Participants within these innovation labs provide feedback on these guidelines and assess the need for further guidelines. As a result of this process, methodological guidelines for video calls within social and health care are continuously optimized. Findings and conclusions. Guidelines for video calling are arranged according to three dimensions. For each of these dimensions there can be some thresholds and complexities for both clients and caretakers that we need to be aware of. First, video calling is seen as a process throughout time. Steps that are undertaken during a video call are: prologue, opening, conversation, rounding off and epilogue. Secondly, video calling is a process involving multiple parties. The caretaker is part of an organization which can influence the way he undertakes video calls. The client from his side, can make video calls from any location he chooses. This means that others can be present in the environment from which the client is making the video call. Finally, the unique modality of video calling influences several aspects of contacts (e.g. language, tempo, …). Brief guidelines for each dimension will be presented.

Unconditional Youth Welfare – Challenging the Boundaries between the “Good” and “Normal” and the “Bad” and “Defective” Parents
Vinzenz Thalheim Plenum

Youth welfare is unconditional if all families are entitled to access their services without means testing (Schrödter/Freres 2019). Within the German youth welfare system children and families have many legally enforceable rights to access services. While some rights are almost unconditional, like the right to access the kindergarten or the right to access parental counselling, some rights are bound to particular conditions established by means testing. Thus, some services like residential child care or family therapy can only be accessed under the condition that parenting is not sufficient and poses a risk to the child. Based on empirical findings of an ethnographical study on home visits by social service agencies Katharina Freres’ presentation shows that this condition has the effect of social workers degrading and stigmatizing parents. In turn, means testing makes parents denying their children. In particular, help-seekers who ask for social services find themselves in a situation where they have to mark their educational skills as deficient and to represent themselves as cooperative towards the social service agency at the same time. Parents who are dependent on youth welfare often seem to feel like having to submit themselves to a deficit perspective in order to receive help. This subjugation can be described as degrading and unjust, because social workers draw a boundary between “good” and “normal” parents on the one hand and “bad” and “defective” parents on the other hand, only in order to grant services. Without that “boundary work”, these services cannot be granted. This injustice and degradation has its origin in the modern German Child and Youth Welfare Act of 1990, as Mark Schroedter points out in his presentation. The original aim of this legal reform was the "replacement of the interventionist and punitive instruments of the current law by a modern, preventive law of service-orientation" (German Bundestag 1989). It was meant to "help parents in their parental mission and to support young people in growing into society" (ibid.). This prevention orientation raises the question, whether it supports parents in their autonomous and reflexive parenting or whether it rather labels them in a moralizing way as a source of risk. Within this modernization process there are voices that have been criticizing this preventive focus on deficits and called for its abolition. Early on the German Federal Government has recognized: "Social workers constantly demand to completely dispense with the negative concept of means testing, since this requires families to acknowledge their own inadequacy in the parenting of children" (German Bundestag 1989). But the Federal Government strongly defended means testing by pointing out two aspects: on the one hand, "the state should not generally assume that the family is in need of assistance in carrying out its parental tasks" (ibid.). On the other hand, the abandonment of means testing would "promote excessive claims in society and lead to a loss of personal responsibility and commitment" (ibid.). This illustrates how critically the Child and Youth Welfare Act was discussed from the beginning, and recent debates on neoliberal accountability in the welfare state show how contested it still is. Youth welfare is considered as a social actor that supports and enables the institution of the family, but also may demolish and replace it. On the one hand, youth welfare functions as a social infrastructure that relieves families of their responsibilities by caring for their children. On the other hand, however, there is always the possibility that youth welfare will become an alternative socialization environment and thus will replace the common construct of the family. Since the first draft of the Child and Youth Welfare Act in the 1980s, this last possibility has been accompanied by the youth welfare discussion – as an utopia on the part of the radical feminist and children's liberation movement and as a terrifying vision on the conservative side. Taking up this tension, the symposium will discuss to what extend the youth welfare system contributes to drawing not only boundaries between different conceptions of parenthood but also between conceptions of the public and the private sphere for the upbringing of children in modern societies. It shall be discussed, whether a system of unconditional youth welfare services by abolishing means testing would enable the private sphere of the family to benefit from public support without being degraded as defective. Following that line of reasoning, Vinzenz Thalheim asks in his lecture to what extent an unconditional youth welfare service would strengthen parenting without degrading parents. He takes a look at the most intensive form of youth welfare intervention: residential child care, which is often regarded as an "ultima ratio intervention". It is discussed, to what extend nonparental care in residential institutions could be perceived by the parents as a positive alternative to their own parenting. How would residential care look like to be considered as a positive social-pedagogical alternative to growing up in the family of origin? It will be discussed whether unconditional youth welfare services, which offer alternative care arrangements, can provide parents with low economic resources with comparable educational and caring opportunities that wealthy parents already enjoy, by privately paying for education and care services (family therapy, coaching, boarding school, etc.). Wealthy parents buy services supporting their parenting without being labelled as “defective”. Unconditional youth welfare services can be considered a demanding social-pedagogical and social-political program. It seems just as utopian and unrealizable – or just as coherent and necessary – as the idea of an unconditional basic income. Speaking in terms of inclusion Pascal Bastian and Jana Posmek show in an outlook that the idea of unconditional youth welfare in current international debates on inclusion is already implicitly contained. Although the debate on inclusion is often on challenging the drawing of boundaries between the “disabled” and the “abled”, the broader concept of inclusion emphasizes the fundamental recognition of human diversity and difference in all areas of society as well as the participation of all people in the relevant social systems. This means, participation or support should not be achieved by allocating and selecting people by individual characteristics, but by changing and adapting institutions and structures to the needs of people. In contrast to the idea of inclusion in the current system families are means-tested in order to get youth welfare services. This procedure excludes them twice: they are stigmatized by the deficit-diagnosis and handed over to the welfare system as a separate group. At the same time, families who have not been diagnosed with defective parenting are excluded from the right to youth welfare services. In the symposium it will be discussed to what extent the idea of inclusion could be fully realized in a system of unconditional youth welfare that supports parents regardless of the diagnosis of a deficit and thus refrains from drawing a boundary between the “good” and “normal” and the “bad” and “defective” parents. The symposium will ensure, that colleagues from different national welfare state backgrounds can participate in a general discussion to put the idea of an unconditional youth welfare system into international perspective. It is an important discussion in order to overcome boundaries of social injustice. References Schrödter, M./Freres, K. 2019 (accepted). Bedingungslose Jugendhilfe [Unconditional Youth Welfare]. In: Neue Praxis. Zeitschrift für Sozialarbeit, Sozialpädagogik und Sozialpolitik, Bd. 49, Nr. 3.

When refugees return. How Social Work can interlink pre-departure counselling with post-arrival conditions.
JORIS KENNIS Plenum

Context: Most European governments are tending to prefer a ‘voluntariness approach’ for the return of undocumented migrants above other more coercive measures. This choice is strongly emphasized by the outsourcing of return counselling to social workers. However, the institutional focus - managing migration - leads to an easy use by policy-makers of otherwise multilayered concepts like ‘returning home’ and ‘sustainability’. This language might not cover the same content and meaning for returning migrants, implicating a risk of creating boundaries and processes of othering. Problem statement: For counselors, having correct information and insight in the post-arrival conditions in the countries of origin, is essential to support prospective returning refugees. The occasional follow-up of returnees that already takes place, reveals the need of a more systematic feedback. If designed properly, valuable monitoring tools can be developed, providing relevant and meaningful information to migrants prior to their decision making to return. The aim hereby is to support social workers in the accompaniment towards sustainable return. The complexity of this exercise is contrasting with the aforementioned migration policies for a swift and simple departure. Research Questions: How can we understand feedback-practices abouth returning migrants with the bridging capacities of social work in mind? What first experiences do we already have by interlinking pre-departure counselling to post-arrival monitoring? Method: This paper explores the experiences of returning migrants after their arrival in relation to two concepts: ‘home’ and ‘sustainability’. First, we discuss how post-arrival information, which comes to us in different forms from the countries of origin, can be used by social workers in the process of guidance and decision making before departure. Second, we report on a pilot-project of online return monitoring by asking the active role of returnees in reporting to us on their individual situation in the countries of origin. We present the format of the questionnaire and the results of the answers delivered. We focus on the value of ‘returning home’ and ‘sustainability’. To what extend do these concepts as expected pre-departure, reflect the reality post-arrival? Conclusions: The linking capacity of Social Work to involve returnees’ experiences does not only strengthens individual migrants, but it also encompasses organizational learning. As application: the preliminary monitoring tool demonstrates added value, motivating the elaboration of a more comprehensive case handling tool. Originality: We build on concepts of social work to preserve the effectiveness and values of return counselling with migrants. Joris Kennis, 2019 MSc Health Care Management and Policy

Collective participation against homelessness – resistance and tokenism
Havard Aaslund Phd

User participation is a central value in the Norwegian strategy to combat homelessness and housing exclusion. Welfare NGOs are seen as central in this, because they are “representing the marginalized” (White Paper 2014). Earlier research on «user-led» housing projects in Norway revealed that both “users” and partners struggled to explain what users actually had to decide, and what influence meant (Ausland, 2010; Eriksen, 2017). The discourse on participation is claimed to have been put in a neoliberal framework in the welfare policy (Kamali & Jönsson, 2018) but others emphasize the liberating aspect of social mobilization and empowerment. Homelessness and substance abuse are issues often met with fatalism and constructed as an identity problems (Parsell, 2010; Teixeira, 2017), which limits autonomy and opportunities for participation. Given the theoretical unlikeliness of homeless mobilization in a Nordic welfare context, what possibilities and barriers exist for collective action by homeless people? My thesis is a case study of a project initiated by homeless people to establish their own, self-governed housing accommodation. Using a participatory action research (PAR) methodology, I have been following the emergence and organization of the project over a period of 4 years producing field notes, interviews and written material in collaboration with the participants. Data has been analyzed in cooperation with participants to further develop the project. An important result of the project is the access to resources to mobilize. Through meeting at a shelter and getting support from an NGO, the participants got access to know-how, location and a ideological opportunity to realize their project. The possibilities for mobilization was closely linked to a process of changing the public identity of people with substance use problems. Through collective identity work, the participants rejected what they called the “social work language” and developed a critical consciousness. Both public institutions and the NGO struggled to put aside their institutional identities, keeping the participants in their roles as “service users”. Although evaluated as successful, the project was closed down after the NGO cut the support due to “ethical dilemmas”. As such, the project is both an encouraging example of possibilities for self-governed houses for homeless, often met with fatalism, where boundaries between helpers and helped was erased. But it is also an example of co-optation of a grassroot movements, leading to its demise, and the re-establishing of these boundaries when the NGO met dilemmas of actual inclusion; for example granting participants labour rights and public debate. Two questions emerge in my project at this moment: 1. How to analyse the power structures in this material in a way that both highlights the ultimate power of the NGO (and state-NGO relationship) and the actual power of the participants in a way that captures the dynamics in time? 2. PAR is usually associated with a critical realist approach to knowledge. In this case a main topic has been issues of identity and voice, leading to a more poststructuralist and postcolonial theoretical approach. How can this theoretical approaches be combined with a critical realist knowledge claim?

Teaching Refugee Children
Kornelia Kraglund Phd

Teaching Refugee Children European primary schools are facing educational challenges when teaching refugee children. Refugee children meet the educational system with traumas, second traumas, and limited or no schooling (Mendenhall, Bartlett, & Ghaffar-Kucher, 2016; Montgomery, 2000, 2016; Nasiroglu & Ceri, 2015). Limited or no schooling constitutes both lingual as well as cultural barriers (Miller, Mitchell, & Brown, 2005) and trauma and loss increases the risk of learning and psychosocial difficulties (Lustig et al., 2004). In educational theories, refugee children are often equated with bilingual children, which emphasizes language acquisition. This conception does not unfold the complexity of the accumulative difficulties many refugee children experience. This PhD project addresses the learning and the psychosocial needs of refugee children in primary school, transcending the bilingual dimension. The purpose of the PhD project is to identify educational practice that promotes learning and well-being of refugee children and it will result in a Refugee Educational Theory that enables teachers and educators to establish a frame of learning transcending lingual dimensions in order to support refugee education in primary schools. The project draws on a mixed methods research design (Greene, 2007) and constitutes a mixed approach in both data collection and analysis. In the qualitative data collection, two types of teaching settings are selected and the qualitative data collection consists of interviews and ethnographic classroom observations. The ethnographic classroom observations will explore the educational practice in the two educational settings and interviews with teachers and educators will be conducted with the purpose of identifying intentional educational reflections and understandings related to educational practice. In addition, refugee children and their parents will be interviewed in order to capture school experiences and perspectives in relation to the educational practice. The quantitative part consists of data from a questionnaire, which aims to quantify teachers’ and educators’ experiences, competencies and educational practice.

Collective orientations of pedagogical staff at schools for the protection of children and adolescents
Katharina Kopp Phd

The time children and adolescents spend at school has continuously expanded due to all-day schooling in Germany. Schools have become a centre in a young person’s life as they spend a tremendous part of their everyday life at schools. Educational institutions represent one of the few places that every pupil is necessarily in touch with constantly and intensively. That is why schools can be regarded as a key point for growing up in public care. A nationwide statistic shows that in the last years schools were important reporters in cases of supposed endangerment (Destatis 2018: 11). As a result, pedagogical professionals have faced a change in terms of what they are expected to contribute in this context. As pointed out in recent debates on scandalous misbehaviour and severe damage done to children and young adults there is a focus especially on the procedures and effectiveness of interventions in cases of endangerments for children and adolescents. As current research shows there is a large variety of publications either dealing with the legal framework or offering hands on recommendations (Bode et al. 2012: 2). In contrast empirical data in this matter has not been gathered and evaluated to an adequate extent at all. To address this lack of knowledge, this PhD project investigates patterns and modalities that determine the protection of children and adolescents in schools. The study is based on a qualitative research design to conduct and analyse group discussions with pedagogical staff at schools (focussing on teachers and school social workers). Using the documentary method it investigates the conjunctive space of experience the participants have in common to this theme in an explorative way (Bohnsack 2010: 103). Thus, the pre-reflexive, tacit knowledge implied in the practice of action comes into view. The aim is to highlight the modalities which frame the protection of children and adolescents in schools and the similarities and differences which result in the orientations of pedagogical professionals. The PhD project operates on a borderline between two professions in a previously un(der)explored setting: schools. The two professions participating in the group discussions overcome their profession-related boundaries by design due to the holistic approach to schools as a whole. Thus, the PhD project builds a bridge by linking institutional and professional conditions. The presentation will give insights into the dissertation project’s current status and its first analyses and considerations on the group discussions that have already taken place. questions for supervisory panel • Do you think the explorative approach is adequate and promising in terms of potential results and findings? • Do you have any tips, hints or recommendations on international literature that you think I should definitely consider? • Are my PhD project’s topic and its procedure comprehensible or do you feel something is missing to fully understand the project?

Boundaries in Social Work and Health Promotion – Social Work bridging between systems and logics for justice in health among disadvantaged target groups.
Anna Lena Rademaker Plenum

The presentation addresses German health promotion, as there is a new law (German Prevention Act) since summer 2015, providing health promotion “in the lifeworld” focussing on health inequalities. This so-called “law to empower health promotion and prevention” encourages actors in this field to collaborate and forces the health insurances to put more than 500 million euros per year into a national health fund. The national prevention committee described recommendations on how to invest the money, and defined core areas (for example childcare services, schools, communities and care facilities) and core topics (for example the reduction of health inequalities). The presentation provides a theoretical discussion and reflection on the current opportunities and the challenge for social work in health promotion and prevention. Based on the concept of the lifeworld health must be understood in the everyday and limitations among disadvantaged target groups. From a professional perspective it is inevitable to mandate for social work clients and their real option space to health in their living environment. Therefore, the presentation discusses participative health research and promotion methods to challenge borders, boundaries and health inequalities.

Observation methods and production practices of the theory formation of critical social work
Klara-Marie Peters Phd

Dissertation project at the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Cologne, Department of Healing Education and Rehabilitation, Chair "Child support Social Work" Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Nadia Kutscher, University of Cologne and Prof. Dr. Fabian Kessl, University Wuppertal klara-marie.peters@uni-koeln.de Research question: How does "the critical social work" observe and how does it establish its reality? Methodological-methodical approach: "Critical Social Work" is understood here as a specific order of knowledge. The traces of the formation of this knowledge order are reflected in texts and are reconstructed as semantic structures in order to answer the research question. It is not the subjective sense that an empathetic subject places in the text as an "author" that is in the interest of the investigation; rather, the analysis reconstructs the meaning of the knowledge order as a network of meanings. Accordingly, the texts studied are understood to be part of an ensemble of discursive manufacturing practices. Methodologically, the project thus concludes Michel Foucault's discourse theory, as well as a postconstructivist perspective on scientific observation in the context of the research process and the observability of the "given" (object construction). The analytical tools of the study are heuristics based on operations that take place in discursive practices: Argumentation analysis, metaphor analysis, as well as the analysis of differences allow the discourse figures to become visible, which are used in the discourse to construct objects, subjects, topics, realities. In the first part the ways of observing and “making” the theory of the "critical social work" are carved out on an empirical basis. In the second part of the work, the functionality of these practices for "the discourse of critical social work" is examined. If the first part of the study provides a text analysis, the second part is a context analysis: Beyond the text, the context of empirically proven discourse practices is clarified. Initial analytical trends: It turns out, that in the contributions on specific forms of reasoning and in difference, certain topoi of theory formation are introduced into the overall rubbermaking. For example: one of the generalities of the "critical social work" is the assumption, that the welfare state is undergoing neoliberal restructuring. Figuration analysis shows how the "finding" of the transformation of the welfare state is produced in the context of a ontologization process. Questions for supervisory panel: The focus of the joint material processing should be the overview of the individual discourse figures. Together, an attempt is to be made to network individual discourse figures or to critically discuss an already created networking. Goal of the networking of discourse figures into figurations is the reconstruction of their interacting functionalities. In addition, a critical reflection of the methodology of the study, as well as its analytical instruments, would be very helpful.

Researching the role of social work in the non-take-up of social rights: a retrospective analysis of the pathways of people in poverty
Lore Dewanckel Phd

During the development of the welfare states after the second World War, the concepts of citizenship and social rights were coined in Europe. The welfare state is responsible for pursuing and legally protecting these social rights its citizens are entitled to. The role of social work within the welfare state is to support people to realize their social rights. Recently, however, the welfare state has been under pressure and is facing growing social, economic and demographic challenges which create barriers in realising the social rights of certain groups. Citizens are formally entitled to social rights, but in practice research evidence shows that their rights are not realised. This widespread phenomenon has been called ‘the non-take-up of social rights’. The non-take-up of social rights has been designated as a major factor inducing and maintaining poverty. Therefore this research project focusses specifically on the non-take-up of social rights of people in poverty, and on the role of social work in supporting the take-up of social rights in situations of poverty. The central objective of this research project is to gain insight into and deepen the current knowledge about the complex and dynamic processes that are at play in the non-take-up of social rights of people in poverty. We adopt a dynamic rather than a static definition of non-take-up, that perceives non-take-up as a complex process. Research shows, for example, that there can be a lack of take-up of social rights due to the non-knowledge, the non-claiming and the non-reception of people according to their rights. Of great importance here is looking at the reasons behind this lack of take-up. Moreover, we define non-take-up as a lack of material as well as immaterial resources, and focus not only on the individual but also look at the relationship between the individual and the structural level. The paradigm of lifeworld orientation developed by Grunwald and Thiersch will therefore serve as the theoretical framework for this qualitative research project. This leads to the three main research questions which are the following: (I) Which material and immaterial structural resources are available for people in poverty that can enable them to take up their social rights? (II) How and why do people in poverty make use of material and immaterial structural resources that enable them to take-up their social rights? (III) How can social workers support people in poverty to reveal their aspirations in making use of material and immaterial resources that enable them to take-up their social rights? This research project will be divided into four different work packages, each consisting of a cluster of research activities, which apply a complementary variety of qualitative research methods. The first three work packages each focus on one of the research questions and cover specific strategies of data collection and data analysis, that are systematically integrated in the fourth work package.

Pedagogics in the Era of Social Entrepreneurship: the Status of Logics of Care and the Market.
Toon Benoot Plenum

As in many other welfare states, a recent policy-shift in Flanders, called ‘Perspective 2020’, paved the way towards personalised care as a realisation of the right to social care for people with disabilities. This policy document has reframed care institutions for people with disabilities as ‘social Entrepreneurs’. The Flemish government specifies that: "The aim is to serve more people with the same resources, through a high degree of flexibility and diversification of services and through the use of both social support (community care) and regular services". The main presumptions of this personalised care policy are: higher quality driven by competition in a market-environment; enhancing demand-driven care; resulting in more creative and flexible answers; whereby personal choice and control over care are central; and institutions are accountable for the use of scarce resources. At the same time, several scholars point to the possible tensions between a care logic and a market-logic. The main critiques concern questions on how to reconcile the right to social care and the social just aspect of care in a shift towards financial driven incentives and profit-oriented practices. The latter assumes creative and flexible answers that are demand-driven and steered by care-market-forces. From these well-known critiques on ‘the marketisation of the social’, we might frame the transition towards ‘social entrepreneurship’ as endangering the pedagogics within care institutions for people with disabilities, putting the economic and market logic at first. In this presentation we discuss ‘The Status of Pedagogics in Care Institutions’ based on interviews with a group of directors of care institutions for people with disabilities which are gathered in a group called ‘Kwaito’. This group focusses on ‘Qualitive, Innovative Entrepreneurship’. It wants to give meaning to concepts affiliated to this transition in the Flemish care landscape from a perspective of solidarity and inclusive citizenship. And above all, they want to shift the paradigm from ‘person centred’ towards ‘person and its environment centred’. This means a shift from an individual rational towards a relational concept of autonomy and citizenship. By conducting in depth-interviews with the 15 directors of the care institutions gathered in this organisation, we shed a light on their decision-making process in the implementation of these policies in practice. And specifically, how these decisions are related to pedagogics and what this entails. This will provide insight in how institutions try to actively reconcile a care and a market logic and give shape to the newly introduced ‘Social Entrepreneurship’.

Researching strategies of discretion of frontline workers of child welfare and protection in dealing with risk in situations of poverty
decoene john Phd

During the last decennia, in several countries the relationship between poverty and child welfare and child protection has been frequently problematized by people living in poverty and by academics. Also in Belgium, the existing body of research shows the need for further research of the underlying assumptions of professionals in child welfare and protection when intervening in families in poverty situations. The research project is situated in the Youth Welfare Agency, a governmental organization which has a societal mandate to intervene in the interests of the safety of the child. For that purpose the Agency implemented the risk assessment and management model Signs of Safety. The question is thus how frontline workers in child welfare and protection deal with risk in situations of poverty when applying Signs of Safety. The aim of this doctoral research project is to investigate whether these professionals develop poverty-aware or poverty-blind approaches, and if so, which strategies they use. The doctoral research encompasses three sub-studies. The international definition of social work refers to the ambition of social work to pursue social justice and human rights. Since poverty is considered as a violation of human rights, the first sub-study of this research is a study of literature that examines the basis of social work perspective to realize these aims. Different theoretical perspectives and assumptions that are important for the search of youth care in the confrontation with poverty emerge. In the second sub-study this issue is historically framed in the development of child welfare and protection and its underlying trends. A remarkable reference point and trend in history is the legislation on youth protection of April 1965, which installs a task and rationale of general prevention besides the casework approach. Another reference point and trend is the international declarations and treaties on human rights. The insights of this historical analysis will be used to critically examine contemporary policy and strategic orientations of the Youth Welfare Agency. In the third sub-study empirical research will be done on how frontline workers are confronted with poverty and how they deal with this problem. Are they poverty aware or poverty blind? What does their vision and their interventions look like when implementing the Signs of Safety model? And what kind of strategies of discretion do they develop in dealing with families living in poverty? How do they use their mandate to support families in poverty and what are the tensions they are confronted with in looking for ways to strive for more social justice? In which ways could their organization support them in acting in that way? This study will be based on qualitative research, a combination of interviews and focus groups.

"When they kick at your front door" - On the current relationship between out-of-home care and the police in Germany
Fabian Fritz Plenum

In May 2018, a police operation took place in Berlin-Lichtenhagen in a out-of-home care apartment inhabited by young refugees. According to media reports and the eyewitness accounts of the pedagogical assistants, two uninvolved young people were seriously injured. The incident was made visible to the general public above all through the positioning of the Berlin/Brandenburg Children and Youth Welfare Association (KJHV). The association criticized the police's actions as "disproportionate and illegal actions", which resulted in the "mistreatment of adolescents and young adults". The colleagues end their statement with the demand that in future "attacks within out-of-home care by police operations should be averted" (KJHV 2018). This incident and the resulting political demands should not remain uncommented by the scientific community. They indicate that - despite many years of debate on the relationship between social work and the police (cf. Pütter 2015, p.1) - there is a need for a renewed resumption of this dormant political and scientific discourse on how to deal with child and youth welfare and the police. The urgency of this debate becomes clear once again in the dialogue with specialists from home rearing at the Federal Congress on Social Work (BUKO), since, in addition to examples of police violence against addressees* of home rearing, there is an everyday and extra-ordinary point of contact between out-of-home care and the police. The extent to which these points of contact are characterised by discriminatory and violent practices towards residents of institutions, and the different roles and functions police have in the provision of aid, has so far been empirically systematically underestimated. The results of the political discussions on the relationship between youth welfare services and the police are reported and reflected on in this paper. The paper presents the results of a workshop with experts from all over Germany and the planning of a qualitative study on the relationship between out-of-home care and the police. Expert interviews with Hamburg and Berlin experts in out-of-home care are planned for the study. The contradictory relationship between the profession of social work and the police should be addressed. On the one hand, police interventions against addressees of out-of-home care are a source of disenfranchising and discriminatory practices, on the other hand, there is a dilution of the areas of responsibility of police and social work. Mutual instrumentalisations of police officers and pedagogical specialists run the risk of transforming pedagogical work into a regulatory dictum. We pursue the goal of showing the current stages of the theoretical discussion of social work with the topic of police and at the same time want to present the first results of our activities in this field. Subsequently, we would like to discuss our planned studies in this and related fields (e.g. police and media reports in relation to social work). References: • KJHV (2018). „Stellungnahme des KJHV zum Übergriff der Berliner Kriminalpolizei auf unsere sozialpädagogische Jugendwohngruppe für unbegleitete minderjährige Geflüchtete“. https://www.paritaet-berlin.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Dokumente/2018/Mai/2018_05_178_Stellungnahme_des_KJHV_zum_%C3%9Cbergriff.pdf • Pütter, Norbert (2015): Polizei und Soziale Arbeit. Eine Bibliographie. In: CILIP June 2015, I.108.

Othering as barrier to changes in child protection
Maria Roth Plenum

This research discusses the topic of boundaries impeding reforms in Romanian child protection. It is based on reflections following the SASCA Project (“Support to adult survivors of child abuse and neglect”, www.sasca.eu), which gave the opportunity to listen to 48 young people (19-35 of age) who spent their childhood in child protection care-settings in Romania and to collect data from 145 professionals working directly or indirectly with children in institutional settings. Data come from stories about traumatic childhood experiences, chaotic institutional environments, lack of emotional and social support, and various forms of abuse perpetrated by other children, by family members, educators or other professionals. The existence of violence in today’s child care settings was backed up by 60% of the professionals answering to an online survey, who admitted to be aware of such incidents. Based on the stories of the respondents, the barriers to reform institutional care are interpreted at the intersection between Goffman’s total institutions and the theory of othering. Based on the testimonials of those growing up in institutions, the presentation looks at how these young people’s identity has been influenced by being othered, opposed to those growing up with their parents. The concept of othering will be discussed in correlation with that of “total institution” (Goffman) and the “disciplinary institution”(Foucault). Romanian child protection settings often still match the characteristics of total institutions in cases when staff project on children in care the despised features of parents who gave up on their children, giving place to a conceptualization of problematic institutionalized children, undisciplined, eventually physically or mentally ill, or disabled, with limited capacity of understanding their own needs and expressing feelings. As a result, such care settings foster obedience to the authority by developing a privilege system that restrict access to desired activities or goods, and promote dependency. Individuals might struggle against the rules and display a rebellious behavior, aggressive to others and/or self. In order to avoid violence of inmates, the “disciplinarian” institution, with no capacity to manage rebellion, and to avoid physical punishment, uses psychiatric medication or psychological abuse. Minor residents are barred from escaping the pressures of institutions, so tensions grow, as they feel the need to acknowledge their capabilities and boundaries. This contributes to the barriers between the mainstream and the children raised in institutions, further dis-empowering the latter of their rights, and impeding on the normalization of the child protection system.

The caged bird sings: young generations versus older generations in social work.
Steven Brandt Plenum

Based on literature, three depoliticization tendencies seem to characterise newest generation of social workers: first, the diminution of interest on the structural level of social problems. Second, the newest generation social workers is supposed to incline the idea of welfare conditionality. And third, different authors describe an evolution towards an increasingly shallow technical, ticking-boxes professional. The new generation of social workers seems to conform with the policy climate in which social justice is increasingly under pressure. It is our contention that this debate is one-sided. It disregards contextual and institutional aspects and is exclusively focused on the newest generation. As they do not take part in this debate, we aim to give them a voice by examining their professional perspectives. This paper reports the analysis of interviews of social workers in a public welfare centre in Flanders (Belgium). Drawing on the three layers of Mannheim’s (1928) generational theory, we demark generations of social workers on a temporal, socio-cultural and unifying layer. Generational differences between these generations are identified by similarities and discontinuities in the professional perspectives of early career experiences of social workers. Although it is indisputable that societal shifts fuel the depoliticization of the newest generation, we observe that this does not affect the whole generation in a similar manner. The newest generation consists of sub groups, generation-units that exhibit a variety of professional perspectives. While one generation unit goes along with stringent workfare policy, other members of this generation reluctantly bring in a contradistinctive rights perspective. Some of these so-called screenagers overtly cry out for analogue client contacts. However, in an institutional context of technicality and digital load – installed by previous generations - the political strategies of newest generation of social workers are limited. For older organisations in social work, it might appear paradoxical that the youngest generation of social workers – although submersed in the context and times of workfare - seems to hold the key to revising institutional processes and guidelines. In respect of their positional objectivity, not being an expert in a highly organised organisation, they are able to signal procedural and institutional barriers that hinder the pursuit of their professional development. Therefore, older generations need to be cautious about new social workers who nod in agreement as they seem to be exceptionally vulnerable to institutional arrangements, hierarchy and policies.

Realizing social rights of prisoners
Liesbeth Naessens Phd

International human rights instruments, national laws and regional decrees are the formal rights framework for the rights of prisoners. Consequently people in prison are considered as rights bearers. Anchoring and institutionalizing a human right approach has the potential to avoid a too strong focus on this target group as carriers of risks. After all, this target group is often reduced to solely being an offender. Moreover, a rights approach has the potential to provide a discourse of social inclusion and to create a more just society. However, despite this framework, realizing rights of prisoners is challenging . The potential of (human) rights is often limited because of some so-called opposing powers. For example the idea that citizenship and the related rights can be earned by good behavior and therefore can be decreased by misconduct is a perception that remains strong both among politicians and the public. Even so realizing rights in a prison context is not evident because of the institutional need for efficiency, cost savings and risk and disciplinary thinking. In short the rights discourse is at odds with the dominant discourse of a prison (Easton, 2008). Despite the above mentioned difficulties, little attention is paid to the concrete application of a human rights perspective towards prisoners. Furthermore, a human rights approach in this field of practice is mainly provided by professional groups as lawyers, philosophers, criminologists etc. Based on the value base of social work (social justice and human rights) various authors suggest that social work towards prisoners should be given a central place in social work (Deveaux, 2014; Cummins, 2016; Garrett, 2016). Social work should promote the realization of human rights and make a crucial contribution to establishing social justice. Starting from this reflections the overarching topic of my doctoral thesis is, from a social work perspective, how social rights of prisoners are realized in Belgian prisons. To answer this question we analyze a rights based approach towards this target group and we interviewed social workers and people in prison.

Safe spaces for ‘radical ideas’? A bottom-up approach towards politisation in youth work
Tim Vanhove Plenum

The departure of young Flemish fighters to Syria and the attacks in France made ‘radicalisation’ an important topic in Flanders (Belgium). New Flemish policies on the prevention of radicalisation were developed with an emphasis on the enhancement of positive identity development of young people at risk in youth care. The explicitly claim to avoid blaming religion as a determinant of violence. At the same time, these policies mainly target vulnerable youth in Muslim communities, and ask considerable involvement of local authorities and social work organizations. What is the impact of the concepts of (de)radicalisation on youth work in Flanders? Do the deradicalisation policies and practises work? And, if not, what would work better? This paper is based on case-studies in youth work organisations in Flanders and Brussels. By means of observations of activities, interviews with youth workers and team leaders, the effects of the policies are charted. Through an action research with youth work organisations, alternative approaches are constructed within the Interreg 2SEAS Orpheus project. Youth work organisations show an ambiguous reaction to (de)radicalisation: it is rejected explicitly because of their stigmatising effect on the Muslim youth and the effect on the bond between youth workers and youngsters. However, the workers also focus on identity development as a part of their general pedagogical approach. The proclaimed focus on societal root causes as explanations for political violence are, however, not incorporated in their approach. The day-to-day pedagogical approach trumps out more structural work on discrimination and inequality, and ends up matching the dominant deradicalisation approach of the government. This problem is acknowledged by the youth workers and their representatives. Their proposed solution is said to lie in a more structural approach that is not limited to merely advocacy by the management, but is widened to politicization. The youngsters have to be taken seriously and strengthened to speak for themselves as equal citizens and express their grievances in a public and legitimate way. To realize this, youth work needs to provide vulnerable youngsters ‘places and spaces’ in which they can experiment freely, have discussions with each other on sensitive and controversial topics and are supported by youth workers to raise their voice in public. In order to actively involve vulnerable youngsters as political subjects. The question is: in what way are these ‘safe spaces’ also an opportunity to politicize youngsters with a migrant background? Even more so in a societal context of polarized safety debates in the media and a negative political discourse on expressed grievances for Muslims. We provide a first draft of an international framework for ‘safe spaces’ and ‘politization’ as an alternative to the dominant deradicalisation approach in youth work. This framework combines the pedagogical fundaments with politisation and bottom-up participation in the day-to-day work of youth workers.

Host families for minor unaccompanied refugees – an alternative?
Gesa Langhoop Plenum

The following empirical research was conducted during my bachelor’s thesis at the Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences with the title “Host families for minor unaccompanied refugees – an alternative?” and deals with the form of giving accommodation to minor unaccompanied refugees in (host-) families. Legal equality regulations determine that unaccompanied minor refugees should get the possibility (like other minors get) of living in foster or host families in Germany. This could be an alternative to the placement in residential youth institutions, but in social work practice it is often not considered - or if so without a concept and under constraint of shortage of place in residential youth institutions. Reducing boundaries in social work practice are less a motivation of doing so, what the sudden approach of some social work institutions shows. Therefore, examining the suitability of this alternative form of giving accommodation and shelter to young refugees, in regard to equal rights, is the object of this research. The findings of this qualitative research are going to be used to reduce boundaries between young people, who are affected by social work. So, the aim of this research was to establish equality especially in this new and yet mostly unlighted practice fields. As a base for the research, the actual situation and legal grounds of minor unaccompanied refugees, of foster and host families and of Social Work are explained. To conduct the research, a qualitative method was applied. Therefore, guided interviews were developed to figure out the situation of potential host families, that provide an insight into their thoughts and doubts. Moreover, questionnaires of the applicants (host families) were analyzed for further information. Interviews with young refugees could not be hold due to ethic research considerations. The interviews were analyzed afterwards with help of the qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. In this research I found out that the practice of placing minor unaccompanied refugees in host families could and should be an alternative to residential youth institutions (especially due to equality), if certain aspects are going to be considered. Therefore, demands for the Social Work were developed and presented. A special outcome of my research is the development of a legal sentence to extend the Social Insurance Code VIII (Sozialgesetzbuch – Achtes Buch - Kinder- und Jugendhilfe). Moreover, further questions and controversies arose during the research relating to the equal treatment of children and youth with and without experience of flight. At this point a discussion is needed about the tension field that comes out between special treatments with the aim of reducing boundaries.

Exclusion as the logic shadow of inclusion in social work – an empirical interpretation
Sören Langager Plenum

The phrase “logic shadow” derives from Niklas Luhmann. Along with Michel Foucault, he has contributed to Central European sociological conceptualization of inclusion and exclusion as inextricably linked to each other. A topic frequently discussed in academic circles in relation to social work and social pedagogical practice, but mostly in theoretical perspectives. Concurrently a more Anglo-Saxon (e.g. Talcott Parsons) inspired interpretation of the idea of increasing social inclusion without exclusion as travelling companion has been promoted as well as ideology as policy-making in social and social pedagogical work. As benchmark practitioner often refers to without considerations about the possible logic shadow as unintended part of the efforts, simply because it is outside the participant’s field of vision. The aim of the presentation is to elaborate sketches to identify and illustrate inclusion procedures and exclusion processes in social work and social pedagogy in relation to social psychiatry, mentally disabled and socially marginalized people within social, educational and labor market contexts. The ambition is not theoretical (besides the above-mentioned point of departure), but empirical in the sense, that if it is assumed, that exclusion inevitably will be a companion to inclusion in sociological contexts, it is possible to conceptualize how and when this will come into sight. This might contribute to professional practitioner’s considerations about unforeseen implications of intensified inclusion efforts. The basic idea is to combine two analytical approaches: 1. Inclusion procedures and exclusion processes are bound to locations/places. E.g., in the same location, as transfer between different locations or deportation to ‘exclusive’ locations. Hereby attached to communities either within the same community or as resettling between one community and others. 2. The terms inclusion/exclusion can be combined as ‘excluding inclusion’ (same location), ‘including exclusion’ (transitions between locations), ‘inclusion or exclusion’ (transfer to another location), and – maybe – exclusion policy with no notions of inclusion as possibility (fenced locations with no trespassing). Such variations are exemplified within social work and social pedagogy in practice with the purpose to shed light on modes of exclusion within social inclusion practice and by this way contribute to make the ‘logic shadow’ visible. It obvious to consider the approach to inclusion/exclusion and locations/places in the context of the TiSSA conference topics ‘borders, boundaries and bridges’, and this will be the final part of the presentation.

Challenging Social Work through Global Climate Change perspectives
Angelika Kaffrell-Lindahl Phd

As Climate Change can be understood as one of the major factors impacting on peoples´ living conditions and possibilities to access basic rights, both globally and locally, Social Work practice and research meets a huge challenge in integrating new environmental perspectives as well as responding to the human and social consequences of climate change, affecting individuals and societies. Additionally, continuing imperialism, global neo-liberal and market-oriented developments pose a risk for essentializing (Sewpaul 2016, 2013) within Social work, by individualizing, medicalizing, culturizing and depoliticizing social problems (Morley 2016), neglecting the “social question” (Lorenz 2016) and the interlinkage of the global and the local. The general idea of this PhD project is to challenge borders and boundaries around and within the profession and research field of social work through extending the understanding of how climate change in a profound way is connected to social work and its challenges and responsibilities as a human right profession to work for social & ecological justice as well as attending to the (climate-change related) causes of social problems. Using critical, glocal and postcolonial perspectives, the identification of social work as a purely social science-oriented profession and research area is challenged (Global Agenda, 2012 and GSWS of Ethical Principles (2018). This implicates that Social work practice, policy and research should confront dividing forces instead of withdrawing itself from both the political and other public arenas. The PhD consists of four articles. The first focuses on different aspects of the climate change-social work relationship, giving an overview on the relevant theoretical perspectives and practical implications for social work as well as outlining central developments (Mason, Shires, Arwood & Borst 2017; Gray, Coates & Hetherington 2013). The second and third article examines in which way Swedish local politicians and Social work practitioners understand their role regarding awareness and preparedness concerning climate change as a threat to basic human, social and ecological rights. What measurements are taken in order to prevent or minimize negative impacts of climate change for different groups in society? How do politicians and social workers reason around climate change directly and indirectly affecting the Swedish society and population, challenging Social work practice? How do ethics and personal/professional choices show in patterns of consumption, use of resources etc. The fourth article will discuss innovative ways how to work with Climate Change and Social Work using arts-based methods (Huss & Bos 2018), following a Music project touring through Sweden, performing and creating spaces for reflection/discussion in the point of intersection between Climate Change, Globalization and Social Work. By providing more knowledge/identifying gaps of knowledge among politicians and social work professionals concerning climate change perspectives, the project outlines how we can challenge the relationship between Climate change and Social work perspectives and put them to practice. As this demands new holistic ways of thinking, creative and innovative methods, such as using arts, can be a way to connect emotions with facts and the individual with the planet.

Challenging Social Work through Global Climate Change perspectives
Angelika Kaffrell-Lindahl Plenum

As Climate Change can be understood as one of the major factors impacting on peoples´ living conditions and possibilities to access basic rights, both globally and locally, Social Work practice and research meets a huge challenge in integrating new environmental perspectives as well as responding to the human and social consequences of climate change, affecting individuals and societies. Additionally, continuing imperialism, global neo-liberal and market-oriented developments pose a risk for essentializing (Sewpaul 2016, 2013) within Social work, by individualizing, medicalizing, culturizing and depoliticizing social problems (Morley 2016), neglecting the “social question” (Lorenz 2016) and the interlinkage of the global and the local. The general idea of this PhD project is to challenge borders and boundaries around and within the profession and research field of social work through extending the understanding of how climate change in a profound way is connected to social work and its challenges and responsibilities as a human right profession to work for social & ecological justice as well as attending to the (climate-change related) causes of social problems. Using critical, glocal and postcolonial perspectives, the identification of social work as a purely social science-oriented profession and research area is challenged (Global Agenda, 2012 and GSWS of Ethical Principles (2018). This implicates that Social work practice, policy and research should confront dividing forces instead of withdrawing itself from both the political and other public arenas. The PhD consists of four articles. The first focuses on different aspects of the climate change-social work relationship, giving an overview on the relevant theoretical perspectives and practical implications for social work as well as outlining central developments (Mason, Shires, Arwood & Borst 2017; Gray, Coates & Hetherington 2013). The second and third article examines in which way Swedish local politicians and Social work practitioners understand their role regarding awareness and preparedness concerning climate change as a threat to basic human, social and ecological rights. What measurements are taken in order to prevent or minimize negative impacts of climate change for different groups in society? How do politicians and social workers reason around climate change directly and indirectly affecting the Swedish society and population, challenging Social work practice? How do ethics and personal/professional choices show in patterns of consumption, use of resources etc. The fourth article will discuss innovative ways how to work with Climate Change and Social Work using arts-based methods (Huss & Bos 2018), following a Music project touring through Sweden, performing and creating spaces for reflection/discussion in the point of intersection between Climate Change, Globalization and Social Work. By providing more knowledge/identifying gaps of knowledge among politicians and social work professionals concerning climate change perspectives, the project outlines how we can challenge the relationship between Climate change and Social work perspectives and put them to practice. As this demands new holistic ways of thinking, creative and innovative methods, such as using arts, can be a way to connect emotions with facts and the individual with the planet.

Social workers at the crossroads of the deinstitutionalization process in Serbia: advocating for community care for people with intellectual disabilities and mental disorders or institutions?
Dragana Stoeckel Plenum

The beginning of the ongoing reform process in the social protection system in Serbia dates back to the democratic changes in the year 2000, towards greater decentralization, activation of beneficiaries and deinstitutionalization of people with (primarily intellectual and mental) disabilities, in accordance with international standards. On the other hand, the EU assists with the reform process by providing grants through EU’s Instrument for Pre-Accession (IPA). The Western Balkan latecomers in respect to EU integration are also latecomers when it comes to the deinstitutionalization of people with disabilities. Although the significant shift is achieved regarding the alignment of national legislation with international standards (outcome), the implementation of defined and adopted policies lacks visible improvement of quality of life of this category of social services users and domestic funding and sustainability. In order to improve their position and strengthen the state’s institutional capacities and human capital, social and health sector were beneficiaries of EU grants for projects implementation in this area. The reform/project efforts were twofold – shifting people with intellectual disability and mental health disorders from institutional to community based care and continuing trainings for professionals with the aim to change inherited approaches to disability from medical toward social and model based on human rights. After years of reform attempts, two general questions are raised: 1) how much has quality of life of people with intellectual disability and mental health disorders been changed; and 2) what are the attitudes of professionals in the field toward deinstitutionalization process in Serbia? For the purpose of this article, the focus will be on the second question. The empirical research involved 185 professionals, including 55 key workers (majority social workers by profession), working directly with intellectually disabled and people with mental disorders in all 10 residential institutions in Serbia. The analyze of the data was performed in SPSS, using two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson correlation coefficient. The results showed general recognition of rights of their clients on life in the community but also resistance toward their potentials for independent life in the community and decision making process. Statistically significant difference is registered between professionals regarding profession (λ=.82, F(4, 360)=9.24, p<.001),, level of education (λ=.79, F(8, 352)=5.63, p<.001) and institution (λ=.75, F(18, 354)=3.03, p<.001), as well as the age and continued training. The study also confirmed that the medical approach to disability,paternalism and prejudices are still present at a number of professionals. Therefore, the results suggest that life and inclusion in the community for people with this type of disabilities have been not really implemented in daily life. On the other hand, social workers are also still partially institutionalized due to expressed paternalism, prejudices, inadequate assessment of clients, lack of user-centered-approach and still partially maintained the medical model. Besides that, they are standing between the EU, government and institutions’ interests and policies on the one hand, and advocating for the interests of their clients as equal citizens.

An interpretative study of the problem construction of poverty and inequality within an urban context: artistic practice and social work in the Rabot Towers in Ghent.
Simon Allemeersch Phd

This doctoral research focuses on the place that social housing occupies in the urban landscape from a perspective of citizenship (Lefebvre, 1968; Harvey, 2012). Throughout this story, the voice of the inner world of the buildings is largely lacking, as well as a profound insight into the living environment of the residents of the buildings. The dominant social problem construction states that the residents of social housing are seen as people who fail (Interview De Decker), and social housing is often regarded as a 'pocket of otherness' within the urban fabric (De Decker & Meeus, 2012). The 'bad story' of social housing, however, is more complex than a problem construction in which the individual responsibility of its residents is seen as the cause of this social problem (Hoenderdos, Prak & Priemus, 1986). This doctoral research is based on the artistic work that I designed as a theatre maker from 2010 to 2013, in the Rabotwijk in Ghent, in social apartment towers that would be demolished in the following years. Although artistic work is considered to be complementary to social work, the role of the arts is not unambiguous (Schubert & Gray, 2015; Byrne & Williams 2015; Rutten, Van Beveren & Roets, forthcoming). On the one hand, the arts, both in forming the urban identity in Ghent (Hillaert, 2012) and in the processes of second generation gentrification and urban renewal, can be transformed into a utilitarian and disciplining tool (Van Bouchaute, 2013). On the other hand, the arts can create support for the public debate on social justice (Rutten, Van Beveren & Roets, forthcoming). The research question and the objective is the question how the construction and reputation of social housing and the architecture and organisation of the buildings influence the biographies of residents at the most personal level. And how can an artistic practice through the construction of complex narratives about the buildings and its inhabitants intervene in the current problem construction of poverty and social inequality in an urban context, and create room to question this dominant problem construction? The research is supported by a combination of complementary research methods. - On the one hand, auto-ethnographic research (Russel, 1999; Ellis et al. 2011) in which a retrospective reconstruction of the artistic process is documented to make an analysis of the past artistic intervention and its reception. The doctoral project therefore links up with practice-led research in which research is increasingly being set up within an artistic practice (Farber and Mäkelä, 2010; Rutten, 2016). - On the other hand, biographical research (see Roberts, 2002) from a perspective of lifeworld orientation with inhabitants of these towers. The research tries to describe how an artistic process can relate to the tension that prevails in the private life of the people involved, and to the tension in a public sphere, when both are strongly characterized by inequality - and how through an open artistic process the connection between the two can be re-negotiated.

The dynamics of youth, sexual violence and masculinities. Presentation of the status of the PhD project.
Daniel Doll Phd

Sexual violence is a worldwide phenomenon, although prevalences differ greatly in international comparison. Studies on sexual violence in Germany in the recent past have concentrated primarily on sexual violence against children whereas sexual violence among adults or adolescents has been investigated much less frequently. This is astonishing as on one hand sexual violence can have substantially negative psychological and physical consequences for the affected and on the other hand youth is generally characterised by an increased risk of becoming victims or perpetrators of sexual violence. Based on the current state of research in Germany, sexual violence among adolescents can be regarded as an everyday phenomenon, which takes place physically and psychologically in a wide variety of (peer) contexts, especially public ones. Regardless of age, the experience of violence is linked to gender in a specific way. Female adolescents, for example, are much more frequently affected by sexual violence than males. Whereas male adolescents report sexually violent behaviour in surveys more frequently. This PhD project is about the dynamic interplay of youth, sexual violence and masculinities. Empirical basis and data are provided by individual interviews and group discussions as well as protocols of theatre pedagogical work with young people between the ages of 14 – 18: vulnerable girls and boys living in residential care or from schools in disadvantaged areas. Data is generated in the research project “Schutz-Prozesse: Partizipative Ansätze im sozialen Umfeld vulnerabler Jugendlicher” (SP:PAS, in cooperation with Social Science Research Institute on Gender Issues / FIVE (SoFFI F.) and German Youth Institute (DJI), funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). From the data – especially from narratives of dynamics of social relationships in youth in the context of sexual violence – I reconstruct possible dynamic moments of subjective masculinities, as it is perceived and expressed by the interviewed boys using qualitative research methods. The following first questions are: • How do boys construct themselves, others and power relations in the narrative context of sexual peer violence in peer contexts? • Are there differences in the description of violence in homosocial and heterosocial peer relationships? • To whom is agency ascribed and how? • What significance does one's own experience of violence have in the narrative of violence and how does this manifest itself linguistically? The aim of the PhD project is • to build on already existing concepts of masculinities (e.g. Bourdieu, Connell) and to develop constitutive moments of masculinities inductively in the narrative context of sexual violence in adolescence • in order to derive implications for prevention working with gender concepts, especially in the context of professional social work in youth welfare. First results of the interviews will be presented and discussed. The focus will be on male perspectives violations of (sexual) boundaries, whereby immanent questions of necessary strategies of professional social work in the context of youth welfare will be put up for discussion.

Structures and concepts of institutions of residential care and boarding schools and their effects on personal relationships and interactions of survivors of sexual abuse in the institutions later in life
Bianca Nagel Phd

In 2016 the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse in Germany was appointed to investigate all forms of child sexual abuse in Germany, to raise public awareness and to promote a better understanding of child protection. For that, private sessions are conducted, where survivors can tell their stories, as well as public hearings to examine different key issues (like sexual abuse in families, the church or the GRD). This PhD-project is part of an interdisciplinary research association with five projects with different but complementary focus, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. We analyse the transcripts of private sessions, conducted by the Independent Inquiry into Sexual Child Abuse. Later, group discussions with different target groups and “Future Workshops” with adolescents will be conducted. The partial project in which I work (carried out by the Social Science Research Institute on Gender Issues/ FIVE (SoFFI F.)) focusses on private sessions with adults who lived in institutional care, such as children’s homes, boarding schools or youth work courts in the GDR, and experienced sexual abuse there. We analyze how structural and conceptual conditions on an institutional level affect personal relationships and interactions in childhood and youth, so that in comparison with contemporary practice we can work out protective factors and see which aspects of protections and risk factors have changed over time and which have outlived historical change. In my PhD-project I analyze the same data but concentrate on the adult lives of the survivors. Growing up in residential care or having been detained in youth work courts they experienced disruption of relationships, social exclusion and stigmatization on different levels. That can also affect children who have been living in boarding schools (like for example the Odenwaldschule). A connection can be established between (pedagogical) concepts of the institution and a functionalization of peer relationships for collective punishment, and subsequently a violent climate where trustful relationships were not possible. My research focusses on relationships of adult survivors of sexual abuse in institutions, including all relationships of trust like friendships, romantic and sexual relationships and (chosen) families. My aim is to reconstruct the structural conditions and pedagogical concepts of the institutions, to analyze the personal relationships and interactions of survivors from qualitative data and to discuss the impact of institutional conditions in combination with sexual abuse in these institutions on these biographic developments later in life. How do pedagogical concepts and different levels of violence influence the possibility of trusting relationships? What are the differences in different kind or aspects of relationships? I am using qualitative research methods like content analysis for the private sessions and plan to conduct a small number of specific interviews. I would like to discuss methodological questions of analyzing the private sessions as well as first findings.

Promoting South Epistemologies to support informed political action
Paula Sousa Plenum

Background and purpose Today Europe stands at a crossroads, requiring it to deconstruct a past that was built on the myth of progress and to emerge with the opportunity to formulate new possibilities for social justice and emancipation. The financial crisis that has plagued Southern Europe since 2010 has led to harsh austerity policies, which fall mainly on social policies, leading to a decline in the welfare states. The purpose of this presentation is to argue that the preservation of the welfare state requires a political action as a way forward for social work in its quest for social justice. - A summary of the main points of the presentation This possibility could be realized on the basis of the epistemologies of the South or, in other words, a set of initiatives for the production and validation of knowledge and understanding based on the experience of oppression and alienation of a large population of Southern Europe, caused by financial crisis and austerity. Social work can use this experience, that plagues the countries of Southern Europe, as a source of further knowledge and researches, as to promote awareness of "new" forms of oppression and alienation (as manifest in the personal lives and impacts society, awareness of people, social movements, conflict, violence, distrust in political solutions and the current system). Only with a better understanding of the new ways of oppression and alienation it is possible an informed political action and therefore to renew social work practices. - Conclusions from and implications The South Epistemologies can not only give visibility to the phenomena of oppression and alienation as well as produce knowledge and innovative approaches to the practical level, supporting the development of practice at the policymaking level. It is believed that South Epistemologies could contribute to restore and reinvent social emancipation in social work practices, an approach that has fallen into disrepair.

Ethical Dimensions of Social Work: foundations of a code of ethics for the profession - PhD Research Project Discussion
Inês Pereira Phd

This paper comes in the context of the ongoing PhD research “Ethical Dimensions of Social Work: foundations of a code of ethics for the profession”, as a contribution to an in-depth discussion on the ethical implications of social intervention. Its study object is the ethical dimensions of social worker intervention. The principles and values of social work are universal. But the way how they turn into practical ethics criteria’s depends on the legal framework of each country and the institutional contexts. Based on the central research question “How can the profession of Social Service be founded at the ethical and deontological level?”, this research seeks to achieve the following objectives: 1) Identify the ethical foundations of the Social Service; 2) Characterize the ethical issues that arise to the intervention in Social Service; 3) Highlight the relevance and scope of a deontological framework for Social Service in Portugal; 4) Systematize ethical guidelines for the Social Service profession; 5) Understand the reflexivity processes introduced in professional practices from the incorporation of the Code of Ethics for Social Workers guidelines in Portugal. After the presentation of the state of the art, the detailed description defines the theoretical framework: Ethical framework of the Social Work in Portugal; Ethics and its foundations: current ethical debates and ethics of professions. Definition of concepts: ethics, ethos, morals, principles, values, thinking, acting, decision making, autonomy and freedom (social work, philosophy, ontology and anthropology); Ethics in Social Work: principles and values of Social Work, ethic issues and guidelines. The data collection universe has an international and national scope, considering social workers working in different contexts, in a stratified sample based on criteria of maximum diversity in terms of distribution in the national territory and professional contexts. We also consider as sample the scientific articles, publications and theses of Social Service produced on the theme in Portugal, as well as the Code of Ethics for Social Workers approved on 25 October 2018 at the General Assembly of the National professional Association. The chosen research methodology is the abductive strategy, using qualitative methods - interviews, focus group and documentary analysis as data collection techniques. The final research results should be presented on the following structure: I - Ethics: fundamentals, definition of concepts, discussion on ethics of professions and ethical debates in the present. II - Ethics of Social Work: current debate on the topic based on the contributions of various authors, principles, values and international ethical guidelines for the profession; identification of ethical issues that arise for social workers in various professional contexts. III - Relevance of an ethical framework for the Social Work in Portugal: work developed in this sense to date; contexts that frame the profession in Portugal - legislative framework, social policies and professional contexts. IV - Ethical guidelines for the practice of Social Work: presentation of the results of the treatment and analysis of collected data. V - The reflexivity processes introduced in professional practices from the incorporation of the Code of Ethics guidelines in Portugal.

Social Justice - Boundaries and Bridges between Social Work and Philosophy for an Ethical practice in Social Work
Inês Pereira Plenum

This paper comes in the context of the ongoing PhD research about “Ethical Dimensions of Social Work: foundations of a code of ethics for the profession”, of the recent first code of ethics for Social Workers in Portugal, approved on the 25th October 2018 at the General Assembly of the National Professional Association of Social Workers, and of the celebration of the 70 years of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a milestone document also for Social Work. The goal of this presentation is to understand the boundaries and complementarities between Social Work and Philosophy concerning to the definition and operationalization of social justice. Based on a review of the concept and understanding of social justice over the years by Social Work and the main philosophical currents, we seek to understand how the different understandings of justice and social justice intersect in these two areas of knowledge and how it contributes to an ethical intervention in Social Work, in order to promote true social justice. We believe that this analysis of the fundaments of social justice in Social Work practice can address not only a deeper understanding about social justice in itself, but can also contribute to the discussion of how an inter and transdisciplinary understanding and perspective on social justice can bring new elements to social intervention, while at the same time allows Social Work to participate and to engage in the deepening and updating of fundamental concepts and values for the construction of more fair societies in the actual context of Europe.

Genesis and Relevance of International Social Work in the Context of Undergraduate Education in the Czech Republic and the Great Britain
Veronika Mia Zegzulkova Phd

RESEARCH ISSUES AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND The proposed research deals with the unexplored topic of genesis and relevance of international social work (ISW) in the context of undergraduate education in the Czech Republic and the UK. ISW is a constantly evolving area of interest for educators and practitioners as well as new and future students of social work. Focusing on social justice, antiopressive practice, ecosystem theory, and interpersonal skills, ISW offers unique perspectives that contribute to the social work profession to address highly current problems in the global context. In the foreign literature are researches focused on the concept of ISW, and the requirement for its larger content within the curriculum is firmly grounded in expert discussion (Dominelli, 2010; Healy, 2014; Ranz, Langer, 2018; Carranza, 2018). In the Czech Republic, this type of research is missing. The history of the implementation and provision of ISW is deeply rooted in the Czech Republic (Vorlová, 1936) and in England, where it is normally included in the education of social workers (Dominelli, 2014). The aim of the project is to describe and analyze the development and current role of ISW in the context of undergraduate education at selected universities in the Czech Republic and the UK. The project will be methodologically anchored through a qualitative research strategy, the case study method (Stake, 2013; Kosnik, 2013). METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH The aim of the research is to describe and analyze the development and relevance of international social work in the context of undergraduate education at social work schools in selected universities, identify the contribution of education in international social work, identify learning outcomes (knowledge, skills and competencies) after completing the study of international social work. The main research question: What is the genesis and relevance that foreign / selected schools attribute to international social work in the context of undergraduate education schools in selected universities? The project will be implemented through a qualitative research strategy, by case study. For the data collect will be used following techniques. Qualitative-interpretive analysis of documents (written sources of institutional character). Semi-structured interview conducted with module guarantors, lecturers and other directly involved educators. Participatory observations to be made during international internships (lectures, modules, seminars, etc.) of international social work at selected universities. QUESTIONS FOR SUPERVISORY PANEL In my ongoing research, I would like to focus on other European countries and their concept of education in international social work – I would like to know another perspectives – Is international social work education in context of European countries same as in context of hole world, should the curriculum be similar throughout the world?

The participation of families in the Child and Youth Protection System: among discourses and practices
Duarte Silva Phd

The present research deals with the participation of families in the processes of promotion and protection of children and youth in danger underway in the Child and Youth Protection System. In the Portuguese context, intervention promoting the rights and protection of children and youth implies the consent and participation of the family, so it is relevant to know and problematize how this dimension is operationalized. The literature suggests the importance of family involvement and participation in the definition and implementation of intervention plans, but at the same time, it indicates that managerialist logic persists, adopting restrictive views of its potential for change and its creativity, interventions anchored in the dimension of social control, defensive and based more on individual risk factors, than on family and community protection factors. It is assumed in the present study that interventions committed to the expansion of the objective possibilities of family change in the provision of well-being to children and youth, based on a community logic and starting from the unlearning of family competences and their participation in parity, is decisive in the process of co-construction of differentiated life itineraries and protectors of the rights of children and youth; Based on the contributions provided by the systemic perspective and the complexity approach, the present research intends, through a qualitative methodology, using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, with professionals and with families, to know the ways of their participation in the protection and ongoing processes in the Child and Youth Protection Services. In this context, it is sought to conceptually specify the concepts of participation and family within the framework of the Portuguese child and youth protection system architecture; still, to map the methodologies used by the professionals that favor/disfavor the participation of the families; comparing the definitions of Portuguese system for the protection of children and youth participation assumed by the professionals with the methodologies used and also analyzing the perceived efficacy, by professionals and families, in relation to the level of participation verified/perceived. The present investigation intends to search the circumstances that underlie this apparent difficulty in the operationalization of the participation in the protective intervention, looking for clues that can strengthen the professional reading and intervention grids. KEY WORDS: CHILD WELFARE; FAMILY; FAMILY ENGAGEMET; PARTICIPATION; COLABORATIVE PRACTICE.

Discretion as a way to (re)politicise social work
Griet Verschelden Plenum

In this paper we reflect on how discretion is and should be used in the context of (Flemish) social work, which is under pressure by many discourses that tend to reduce social work to service providing or executing other’s decisions. With a focus on risk management, accountability and efficiency, policies attempt to limit the agency and independency of social work and civil society. Certain Flemish NGO’s have recently been scourged by policy makers for their critical responses to policy choices. As a consequence social workers risk losing part of their agency and autonomy, which in turn could lead to a loss of quality and social impact of social work practices. This discussion and concern is not new, Lipsky already mentioned this ‘battle’ in 1980, where he discussed the struggle of ‘street-level bureaucrats’ to do good and qualitative social work in a context of new public management and scarce resources. More recently Bovens & Zouridis (2002), Ellis (2007), Evans (2010, 2011), Evans &Harris (2004), Roose (2011) and many others have elaborated and researched the issue. Currently, however, the pressure increases even more due to used discourses and strategies of policy makers and management teams. There seems to be no room for ambiguity, nuance and critical opinions. With the essentialist discourses on top social work has to struggle to be able (and allowed) to act for and with all clients, citizens, humans. In these developments, revisiting the possibilities and issues concerning discretion as a means for meaningful social work and social change is in order. Our reflections are based on two research projects. The first dates back to 2011, where professional discretion in early childcare was researched as the main focus of the project. The second project, finished in 2016, focused on solidarity in diversity, contained multiple case studies in the field of labour, education, leisure and housing, and zoomed in on discretion as a way to create innovative forms of solidarity in superdiverse contexts In both projects we noticed three different strategies of professional discretion : going underground, setting the agenda and building strategic networks. Based on these research projects we illustrate the potential of the use of discretion for broadening agency and for (re)politicising social work practices in general, and for enhancing and making visible practices of citizenship and solidarity more specific We will discuss structural forms of discretion, the mind set of social workers (and managers) towards discretion, possible strategies of social workers and volunteers, and end up with some critical remarks about the use of discretion in social work practice and research.

Charity, rights and the new charity economy: challenging binaries of the Un/Deserving poor
Griet Roets Plenum

During the last few decades, the dependency of citizens on the social welfare system is regarded as a vital social risk in many European welfare states. Welfare state systems have gradually shifted their emphasis on social protection and social security and reconfigured into a system of social insecurity. In social policy rhetoric, poverty has been scrutinized under the social and political microscope as a problem of people living at the bottom of the social and economic scale while dynamics of inequality and wealth are largely ignored. Critical social work scholars have argued that social policy and social work have increasingly focused on welfare recipients’ merit rather than securing their citizenship and rights, resulting in a focal concern in the behaviour of the poor and echoing a binary and pre-welfare state distinction between deserving and undeserving citizens. In that vein, we see a recently emerging and alarming critique on social work being involved in the production of so-called charity economies in the shadow of the welfare state and expressions of neo-philanthropy in frontline social work practice. The objective of this symposium is to tease out historical roots as well as contemporary manifestations of this recent shift in the normative value orientation of social policy and social work.

Institutionalization and De-Institutionalization – Doing Boundary Work in Social Work Talk
Martina Richter Plenum

Social work talk characterises professional interaction substancially. Professionals and social service users establish relationships and negotiate problem definitions by talking. In their talk both sides have to deal with institutional demands. Of special interest in this regard is the communicative pro-cess of transforming people into ‘clients’. The presentation is about how institutionalization but also deinstitutionalization become practical in social work talk while doing boundary work.

Ethics of knowledge production in child and family social work
Pekkarinen Anna Phd

My doctoral dissertation addresses ethics of knowledge production in social work with children and families. The thesis is a collection of peer-reviewed articles with an extensive summary section. I approach ethics particularly from a virtue ethical perspective: social work ethics is in risk of losing its connection with the moral dimension of social work if merely rules, duties or outcomes are emphasised. Therefore, it is relevant to turn the gaze towards the abstract virtuous self that can be harnessed to serve ethically sustainable social work. Furthermore, I am intrigued how we know about ethics, because the ways of knowing might reflect something even fundamental concerning the nature of virtues in the social work context. I understand child and family social work comprehensively including the diverse landscapes in which social work is practiced, and as such the chosen context does not only refer to child protection. I chose child and family social work as a particular lens due to the ethical complexity of families that arise from the multitude of voices and interests, the ambiguous boundaries between acceptable and non-acceptable and the tangled webs of power. The research questions are: - What kind of virtues are rooted in the fields of social work with children and families? - What and how do we know about ethics in child and family social work? The dissertation is by nature conceptual, because I am intrigued how virtues and knowing about ethics can be conceptually perceived. However, to gain understanding on virtues and ways of knowing about ethics, I utilise empirical data in the articles. The studies concern virtues in research, virtues nurturing participation of the child, moral courage and emotions in contested decision-making situations. Empirical data constructs of documents such as doctoral theses and international treaties as well as written narratives and narrative interviews on moral courage and emotions. I seek comprehension on the nature of virtues and knowing in social work among children and families by reflecting the results of analysis in relation to theoretical accounts. Through this exercise, my objective is to synthetise the analysis and the theoretical accounts and consequently, provide new insights regarding the central concepts. The abstract virtuous self can act as a moral radar in contested and ethically colliding situations. However, the abstract virtuous self is not commensurable with the morality of an individual social work practitioner – instead virtues transcend into a sphere of morality that goes beyond the morality of an individual. The exercise of virtues is contextual, yet not relative. Virtues hold diverse lines of thinking, doing and being that shape everchanging map-like patterns. A single virtue can be identified by utilising theoretical conceptualisations, but the division is completely artificial because virtues work as ranges and repertoires along with other virtues. The discussion on ethics of social work appears to turn into discussion about the nature of social work. I am confused on how to respect the issue of what is social work whilst focusing on the central topic, ethics and knowing in social work.

Situation of adolescents leaving foster care: I´m 18. What´s next?
Tereza Polochová Phd

Leaving foster care is not sufficiently analysed in the Czech system. Many researches refer to the situation of adolescents leaving institutions, but a separate mapping out of foster care is lacking, although foreign research shows problems with moving to a separate adult life is considerable for this target group. According to the statistics of the Czech Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs for 2017, 1935 children were placed in foster care. At the same time, almost 300 cases of child abuse, abuse or neglect were found this year. However, these children were placed in care due to neglect of compulsory nutrition, maltreatment, threatening upbringing, bodily harm or other crime against the life, health, freedom, human dignity, moral development or the child's fortune by biological parents. (MPSV, 2017) These statistics show that the situation of children with foster care experience is not easy in terms of output environment and may not be acceptable even in a substitute family environment. This burden from biological families entails stress aspects that can persist until adulthood as a result of childhood trauma. Therefore, the transition to adulthood is so difficult. National and international legislation has created the 18th birthday as a dividing line between childhood and adulthood. Children are designed to be vulnerable and need protection, while adulthood is defined in terms of ownership of rights and duties. In advanced industrial societies, the transition from one stage of life to another can no longer be directly. Postmodern transitions of youth into adulthood are characterized by discontinuity and riskiness. Unlike previous generations, the transition to self-adulthood is a challenge for all young people, especially because of the great diversity of possible paths to adulthood (Hayes, 2013). Bauman (2002) talks about a new type of uncertainty in this context, where resources are known, but goals are unknown. The process of transition to adulthood entails the risk of uncertain identity, where such a phenomenon is associated with development and structural changes such as expanding education, limiting the social system, and so on. Young adults after foster care are expected to accelerate from partial to full social citizenship, which every young person must do, usually as a gradual process, but they often face phenomena as homelessness, unstable lifestyle, low education, unemployment, etc. (Hayes, 2013). Research objective and main research question: The aim of the research is to map the situation of adolescents leaving foster care and related interventions of social work by the perspective of adolescents themselves and relevant social workers in the Czech republic. -?-: How the process of leaving foster care and related social work interventions are interpreted by the perspective of adolescents leaving foster care and relevant social workers? Research: Qualitative strategy, Grounded theory Methods of data collecting: Narrative interview, Semi-structured interview Question: Is it somehow possible to combine analysing of narrative interview and semi-structure interview?

Migrant Communities & Informal Refugee Support in Germany
Hannah Heyenn Plenum

The article discusses the effects of exchanges between settled migrants from different ethnic backgrounds and refugees within the framework of selected refugee support programmes in Berlin. According to Germany’s Federal Office for Migration and Refugees, well-functioning migrant organisations are beneficial for integration as they can play a role in transmitting the values of the receiving country. Studies from other European countries have shown migrant populations to prefer informal over formal social work interventions (Hugman et al. 2010) and refugees to exhibit particularly high levels of distrust in institutions (Ni Raghallaigh 2014). Facing integration challenges with high numbers of refugees since 2015, the need to overcome these barriers to social work with refugees is strong. In the aftermath of the 2015 refugee influx, diadic informal interventions called „Patenschaften“ (Sponsorships) or Tandems became a popular way to involve the civil society into refugee integration, while also influencing the attitudes towards refugees in society. Evaluating and comparing such diadic programmes run by Turkish and Polish migrant organisations with counterparts run by non-migrant organisations, the study aims to produce insights by answering the following research questions: In which way are migrants and migrant organsation advantaged or disadvantaged to extend informal support to refugees? Which challenges and potentials do migrant organisations face in the design and execution of social work activities for refugees? Our findings are based on semi-structured narrative interviews with Turkish and Polish migrant as well as non-migrant sponsors and refugees, who have taken part in the programme. Single interviews and diade interviews were conducted to evaluate informal integration dynamics of the programme. Coordinators from two migrant organisations and one non-migrant organisations were interviewed to gain insights into challenges and potentials of organisations as well as attitudes towards refugees in participating communities. The contribution shows the advantages and challenges of refugee integration programmes run by migrant organisations. Main advantages of migrant sponsors were based in their background as a former newcomer to the receiving society. Cultural misunderstandings with Germans or administrational issues were often part of the experience of settled migrant sponsors. Migrant-Refugee-Diades were in tendency less hierarchical, than their Non-migrant-Refugee counterparts. Migrant organisations as coordinators of Sponsorships made use of external institutional support for administration or expert seminars more often than the non-migrant organisation in the study. Settled migrants in refugee support diades combine their affinity for informal exchanges with personal knowledge of the institutions and societal frameworks involved in integration in the receiving country. Through similar experiences migrant supporters bridge refugees mistrust more easily than non-migrants. Thus the full advantage of informal interventions is in force in migrant run refugee support. Coordinating organisations of non-migrant background, however, were advantaged structurally and by formal experience of coordinators to the migrant counterparts. In summary migrant communities can increase the integration potential of the host society by utilizing their lived experience of integration in the host society. Such programms benefit the structure and skills in migrant communities and may be a policy answer to the challenges of integration in a post-migration society.

Social Impact Assessment: Borders and Bridges
Cristiana Almeida Plenum

Traditionally used in the economic field, borders have become bridges and the impact assessment has also been adopted by social sciences. Indeed, results and impacts can be seen as a growing concern in social sciences. Now it is becoming more and more important to measure the "utility"/value of a political, economic or social intervention and identify the indicators of change achieved by them, compared to its absence (UNEG, 2013; UNDP, 2009). The concept of social impact assessment has been discussed over the last decades. A significant number of authors (Bassi & Vincenti, 2015; Becker & Vanclay, 2003; Blasco & Casado, 2009; Castro, 2012; Flynn & Flynn, 1982; Gertler, Martinez, Premand, Rawlings, & Vermeersch, 2016; House, 2018; Khandker, B. Koolwal, & Samad, 2009; Rogers, 2014; Santos, Veiga, Cruz, Lopes, & Ferreira, 2015; Teixeira & Monteiro, 2015; Vanclay, 2002, 2003) dedicated their scientific research to this issue. As a result, it is possible to find a multiplicity of national and international works on the definition of social impact assessment (Burdge, 2003; Esteves, Franks, & Vanclay, 2012; Lockie, 2001; Vanclay, 2002, 2003), the design and implementation of the impact assessment methodology(Burdge, 2002, 2003; Gertler et al., 2016; Silva, 2012; Vanclay, 2002, 2003), as well as the thematic specificities(Fernández, Cunha, Ferreira, Araújo, & Goméz, 2015; Flynn & Flynn, 1982; Halstead, Leistritz, & Johnson, 1991; Kemp & Vanclay, 2013; Meuleman, 2015; Morrison-Saunders, Bond, Pope, & Retief, 2015; Ravetz, 1998; Rowan, 2009) and critical reflections (Benson, 2003; Bice, 2015; Burdge, 2002; Laedre, Haavaldsen, Bohne, Kallaos, &Lohne, 2015; Leistritz, Murdock, & Chase, 1982). Simultaneously, the impact assessment of social policies, specific programs and projects has increased (Andrade, 2017; Barroso, Marques, Monteiro, Andrade, & Vieira, 2014; Cases, 2013; Franco & Apolónio, 2008; Mira, 2015). In Portugal, there has also been a paradigm change in the implementation of social policies, which are progressively adopting a logic of governance and territorialization. In this context, the Local Social Intervention Network (RLIS in Portuguese) has emerged as an organizational model that emphasizes integrated action and therefore the involvement and accountability of different local actors (public and private entities and civil society). Meuleman (2015, p. 5) analyses the relation between Social Impact Assessment and Governance using the“metaphor of the owl and the beehive”. In his article, the author argued that “on the meta-level of symbolism, the owl’s knowledge, wisdom and ‘intelligence’ (IA) and the beehive’s organisation qualities, sense of order, industry,cooperation and hard work (governance) can form a winning team. The issue is how to connect these qualities in a productive way” (Meuleman, 2015, p. 5). Social impact assessment and governance are cross-cutting themes, that have been adopted at global, European, national, regional and local levels in multiple sectors. However, the question arises if social impact assessment can be considered as a universal concept? Can it be used undifferentiated by all scientific areas? Where are the borders? Are they clearly identified? The conclusions of studies and results of scientific research highlight borders and bridges that will be critically discussed in the present communication.

What a paradox on the actor can tell us about care and co-creation: why a social worker is not a whore
Simon Allemeersch Plenum

The immediate motivation for this article is an interview with a participant in different projects organized by the author. In this interview the participant describes the compassion of social organizations as fake, comparing the contact with a social worker as ‘visiting a whore’, because the social worker expresses compassion and warmth for which he or she is paid. This gave the participant the idea that through these contacts her life felt ‘as being fake’ (Interview ‘I’ did no longer feel like ‘me’). Drawing on a similar reproach about the presumably immoral and corrupting grounds of the theatre (Rousseau, 1758; Mamet 1994, Sennett, 1977) and using Diderot’s analysis of the work of the theatrical actor (Le paradoxe sur le comédien, 1830) as the clarification of a common misunderstanding about the emotional work of the actor - this article focuses on the place an informal relation takes in professional care and social work, questioning the notions of compassion and authenticity in social work. It investigates the idea of a paradox of care, where the social worker is willing to help, although these good compassionate intentions are not a guarantee this is the best way to actually organize care. Let alone that these feelings will be welcomed spontaneously by the public a social worker deals with. Perhaps this work often feels like wanting to shout ‘don’t be nervous’ to someone who is nervous. But should the social worker then act as a cold technician of care? This article is not proposing a final solution to this paradox. On the contrary, this text is not even trying to resolve it, stating that this paradox is human - and could be regarded as a plea for passionate professional social work, rather than compassion. Social work could be looking for an intelligent way to work its way around this paradox, hinging on a better understanding of authenticity, and looking for the possibility of ‘new’ forms of authenticities (plural). These forms need new metaphors for care, that are based on an equal relation between participants and social work. Social work should hold a rights-based perspective, and could creatively use the knowledge of formal and informal order (Scott, 1998) - rather than charitable systems (Kessl, Oechler & Schroeder, 2019), handing out to the deserving. The popular ideas of co-creation and arts-based techniques could be useful in this sense, but should be evaluated critically through this ‘radical lens’. The author uses qualitative research data from his own background as a professional theatre maker and researcher, based on the experience with several projects within places of care, specifically a child psychiatry and social housing. These projects were based on a system of co-creation with participants who often have a life long relation with care and psychiatry. Interview ‘I’ did no longer feel as ‘me’. Transcription of a conversation and interview conducted on 01.09.2017, 4 audio tracks, 13 pages.

Educational Pathways in the context of asylum-migration
Juri Kilian Plenum

Germany has faced large migration numbers of asylum seekers in the last years. One major challenge of the society is their educational and labor market integration. The presentation will introduce a case study research which is an ongoing qualitative project focusing the perspectives and experiences of young people. The thematic perspectives and research questions are circulating around the challenges and struggles that those young people are facing in their day-to-day life navigating themselves through different structures of a German middle-sized urban environment and its educational spaces. The research concept, methodological challenges, questions of research ethics as well as preliminary results and findings will be presented to and discussed with the audience.

Epistemic injustice in / and social work
Luc De Droogh Plenum

The theme of the 2019 TISSA Conference ‘Challenging social work’ can be read in two ways. It can be read with social work in the role of a challenger of boundaries. But it can also be interpreted as a task to challenge social work itself. We focus on this second interpretation questioning if social work is not reproducing the distinction between ‘us’ and ‘them’ , specifically in the process of the production of knowledge. We start from the concept of epistemic injustice. Fricker (2007) makes a distinction between two types of epistemic injustice. The first, testimonial injustice, is about situations in which the speaker is not believed due to some form of prejudice by the hearer and thus is wronged specifically in her capacity as knower. In social work we usually classify certain groups of clients as victims of prejudice – people living in poverty, with a migrant background, mental health users … But we almost never ask the question if and how does becoming a social work client in itself, contributes to the declassification in one’s role as a knower? What kind of pattern(s) makes this kind of not (really or fully) believing social work clients happen? Fricker’s second form of epistemic injustice is hermeneutical injustice – the injustice of having some area of one’s social experiences obscured from collective understanding owing to a structural identity prejudice in the collective hermeneutical resource ( Fricker, 2007). Based on old and new research on experts by experience for a number of social problems ( poverty, youth work, mental health … ) in a diversity of institutional settings and contexts, we first want to illustrate how the use of experts by experience is introduced and used as a means to deal with both kinds of epistemic injustice. Secondly, we want to question if experts by experience really help to bridge the gap between social work and its clients or is actually contributing to widening the gap thus producing in the process of knowledge construction the widening of the gap between social workers and clients. A conceptual analysis of the notions of ‘experience’ and ‘expertise’ are crucial steps to move forward. Based on this analysis, we conclude with some suggestions to take epistemic justice as a specific form of social justice as a virtue of social work institutions and not of social workers and/ or experts by experience.

Professional education for participatory social work
Ewa Kantowicz Plenum

A contemporary social work is defined as a scientific branch and a professional activity, which employs the achievements of various social and humanistic approaches to construct concepts of researching and acting in the complexity of professional practice. Answering the challenges related to the appeared social boundaries such as political or social and economic difference, gender, race and nationality, and growing up distinction between ”us” and “them” - social work can become a bridge in building a new social consciousness. One of the key issues in this field is a professional education of social workers, offering new concepts and approaches to the changing social work practice. Analyzing the content of a professional education programs offered to social workers by some Polish universities, it can be noticed the promotion of participating methods in the process of professional education. In this context, preparing professionals to be active in the area of social participation seems to be the issue which cannot be objected. Participatory concepts in social work may be found in theories and in the undertaken practices that describe and reflect specific processes and situations of exclusion, social diversity and social borders. These concepts of social work stress the value of the individual and the group as an active entity in the process of the protection of the rights and social support. The aim of the presentation is to discuss the role of academic education for participatory social work that can become a bridge in building a new social consciousness.

Planning of social services in local level: New opportunities and challenges for social workers in Albania
Eliona Bimbashi Plenum

Planning is a way of achieving the desired goals, including "an accurate knowledge of a community's history, a systematic environmental analysis, a rigorous assessment of realistic conditions, and a clear vision of where we need to achieve and a planning process presenting ways of achieving these goals. (Bateman, T. S., & Snell, S. A., 2009) Specifically, social planning include mapping the needs of the population through data collection and aggregation, having the right tools for financial and integrated planning in order to target funding to the areas or sectors of highest need, monitoring and evaluation phases, and the involvement of multiple stakeholders. Workers of social service at local government units have a direct knowledge and experience of the situation and the problems faced by users of their services. They are uniquely positioned to work in partnership with citizens at local level to create services that effectively address the real needs of the community. Local-level planning shifted the focus of attention from individual services to collaborative services to create a local service delivery network, linking services to each other, while identifying the existing gaps. Local-level planning focuses on available resources, mainly local and / or government sources, but also private, so that they are best used to improve the quality and quantity of service delivery. With the new territorial reform in Albania the structure of social services in local government units (including municipalities and administrative units) covers a multiplied geographic area, but has remained the same structural organization in terms of quantity and responsibilities of staff. These means more opportunities for social workers to perform their skills and professional capacities but also lots of challenges. This paper aims to present and overview of the existing legal and institutional mechanisms for social planning at local level, but also provide an assessment of human resources capacities to face the above mentioned issues. The methodology used is qualitative, including semi structured interviews and focus groups with stakeholders. The analysis of the legal an institutional framework shows that progress is made in the last five years with the administrative reform and different legislation improvements in social protection and social service field. These changes have created better opportunities for social workers to be actively engaged in needs assessment, mapping of vulnerabilities and social planning at local level, providing of broader range of community based social services, etc. Some of the main results identified also several challenges and gaps related with lack of human resources such as experienced social workers or other specialists, lack of qualifications, standardized guidelines and instruments, multitasking positions and overload at work, which has affected their professional performance in general, also lack of financial and logistic resources to apply needs assessment based social planning. Key words: social planning, social services, mapping of needs, local government units.

The art of making public: the politics of participation in participatory art practices
Siebren Nachtergaele Plenum

In recent years, many social work and art practices have developed at the intersection between the ‘cultural turn in social work’ and the ‘social turn in the arts’, with participation as a central constitutive element of the art practice (Bishop, 2012; De Bisschop, 2008; Jans, 2016). Participatory arts are quite often seen as a radical democratic practice (Kester, 2011), or as an answer to social and economic alienation (Gruber, 2013) and polarization in the society, with a clear social agenda (Bishop, 2012). But are participatory art practices really democratic and pluralistic, or are they instrumentalised as part of an economic policy agenda, towards privatized public space (Courage, 2017:24), gentrification and consensual politics (Bishop, 2012)? Discussions about inclusion and exclusion (Bell, 2014), cultural democratization versus democratization of culture, and between the individual and the collective or the private versus the public are central in these practices (Bishop, 2012; Deceur et al., 2016). In our presentation we will explore how we can describe, make visible and (if necessary) enhance the societal impact of participatory art practices in Flanders (Belgium). This should be understood as describing the individual and collective meaning making processes and accountability of the practice instead of measuring assessments in terms of social effectivity (in quantifiable data). On the one hand we focus on the social and cultural processes which are developed by cultural workers with participants, and on the other hand we map the impact on the social and cultural fabric of the community and the broader society. In this research project, a multiple case study is set up, by using ethnographic research methods. In this presentation we will present the provisional findings of the first part of the research, namely the results of the literature study and the first six depth-interviews with key informants in the field, as the lever to start the multiple case study research. Central discussions in this research stage are about connecting individual and collective meaning making processes, making public domain in artistic practice and shifting roles of cultural and artistic workers.

The ECEC expansion policy in Germany and its effect on social inclusion
Nora Jehles Phd

As a „conservative“ welfare regime, Germany has a longstanding tradition of „service-lean“ welfare provision (Esping-Andersen). This changes with the expansion of Early Childhood Eduacation and Care (ECEC), especially after the millennium when educational programmes were also implemented for children younger than three years of age. The discussion is often framed by social investment arguments: ECEC boosts the future educational attainment of children and thus prevents social exclusion. In Germany, the political discours also focused on the quality of future labour supply and on enabling the early return of mothers into the labour market. In a first step the paper will identify the drivers of policy reform which resulted in the right to a childcare place from the age of one. In a second step, the paper will give empirical evidence for two different questions: The first question is, if the social investment aims of the reforms are reached or if there are differences between migrant and non-migrant children in the usage of ECEC in the dimensions generel use, begining of use and segregation. The second question is, if the legal frame on different federal levels leads to differences in the usage of ECEC. Official data from the German „Kinder- und Jugendhilfestatistik“ (statistic on children and youth) will be analysed using descriptive univariate quantitative methods This data set comprises all children who use any kind of ECEC in Germany. Furthermore correlations with between the differences of the use of ECEC and structural characeristics of the federal states and communities are being tested. The results show that migrant children use ECEC less often and at a higher age than non-migrant children. Moreover, the use of ECEC is segregated due to the concentration of migrant and non-migrant children in different ECEC institutions. Thus, the aim of social inclusion through ECEC remains questionable although the results vary remarkably between federal states as well as between communities. The paper ends with hypotheses about the reasons for these outcomes like e.g. different federal financing structures and the segregational influence of different ECEC organisations.

From School Drop-Out to Meaning Making: Social Work & Education as Conversion Factors?
Juno Tourne Phd

Counteracting early school leaving is at the forefront of educational policy, research and practice. Both on the level of Europe and Flanders goals have been set to reduce the percentage of early school leavers by 2020. This focus on reducing early school leaving is prompted by research that indicates that early school leavers are more frequently associated with unemployment, poverty, juvenile delinquency, etc., which causes early school leaving to ensue high social and economic costs for both the individual and society. A lot of research into early school leaving therefore focuses on identifying different determinants of early school leaving. Most of these current educational policies, research and practices utilize a human capital perspective in regard to early school leaving. The idea of this perspective is that education and a degree are crucial for inclusion on the labour market, which in turn is essential for economic growth. Furthermore, the human capital perspective assumes that social inclusion is best reached by paid employment and re-integrating marginalized groups into education and the labour market. Empowering, participative and prevention strategies are used to increase the active participation of young people in education and on the labour market. The finality of such strategies is school attendance and graduation. This functionalist view on education doesn’t recognize the importance of meaningful education. For this reason, the focus in this research is on the importance of meaningful education. An important element herein is the freedom of choice youngsters experience in their relation to education. Therefore, attention to the possibility of escape or exit youngsters experience in education is an important element. Exit refers to the opportunities youngsters have to (temporarily) escape education at a reasonable cost. We study this question using the capability approach, because of the attention to both meaning and freedom of choice in this framework. The capability approach differentiates between capabilities and functionings. Capabilities refer to the real freedom people have to live a life they value living and functionings refer to what people effectively do or are. Other elements are commodities or resources, these are the available means of people. These means are positively or negatively influenced by conversion factors. These are personal, social and environmental factors that influence a person’s capacity to transform resources into capabilities. Rather than focusing solely on the functioning of attending school, the capability approach looks at the capability for education. This is the real freedom youngsters have to choose education. In the capability approach education is deemed important for both instrumental and intrinsic reasons. On the one hand education is important for the expansion of capabilities, as it gives youngsters more opportunities in life. On the other hand, having knowledge and having access to education is important and valuable an sich. This study aims to understand the relation between room for meaning and exit in education and how social work and education function as positive or negative conversion factors.

The Promise of School Social Work and Restorative Justice to School Discipline
Ozan Selcuk Phd

Research proves that there is relationship between students’ low academic achievements who are exposed to disciplinary actions and their psychosocial functioning. Huge volume of research and theory is available about the issue in sociology, educational sciences and educational psychology. Studies based on these research and theories are related to negative social functioning and negative effects of disciplinary actions on students, faculty and the school itself. Studies show that disciplinary actions cause students to have psychosocial problems, and damage students’ relationship with the school. The iatrogenic effect of school disciplinary actions serves as a potential source for alternative approaches to school discipline. It is a known fact that school disciplinary actions are mostly based on traditional approaches, which is punitive, such as reprimand, temporary suspension or complete removal from formal education. Such actions have negative effect on students’ psychosocial functioning such as trauma, PTSD, anxiety, aggressive behavior, depression and early school leaving. However, there is little research carried out related to the issue in the field of social work. It can be said that this subject has received little interest by social work researchers. Few but popular works has been carried out by Dupper (1994), and Dupper and Meyer-Adams (2002) related to subject. This article aims to interrogate the traditional school disciplinary actions by re-considering the concept of “offense” in terms of humans and their relationship and by re-assessing the relationship of offense-justice within punitive system. This article also aims to support the idea that offense should not be taken as violation of rules but restoring human relations between people who are involved, namely, victim, offender and the community. This article further aims to discuss punitive approaches to school discipline within the framework of social work and restorative justice principles. The perfect fit of the principles of social work and restorative justice have great potential to transform traditional disciplinary actions by empowering students, creating positive school culture and climate, and promoting positive change in micro and macro levels. Mostly studied by other disciplines than social work, this study will contribute to social work literature in this respect.